Found 145 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 2007
High-Fidelity Simulation/Mentoring System for General Officers in High-Stakes Operational Environments

Year: 2007

Authors: Laura Zimmerman, Christopher Burns, Jeff Sestokas

Abstract:

High-level U.S. Armed Forces commanders must often juggle multiple roles while performing in high-stakes, rapidly evolving operational environments. Newly assigned Joint Forces Air Component Commanders (JFACCs) make decisions that affect not only military operations, but also have impact on international political, economic, and social structures. They often have very limited experience making such decisions. As in other domains, complex decision making usually develops with experience. Because these decisions have immediate impact on critical military operations, it is impractical to wait for commanders to learn these decision skills while on the job.

Most existing computer-based instruction for future military leaders focuses on tactical level training. We have created a cognitively authentic, computer-based simulation environment that focuses on the unique demands of commanders in operational environments. This paper will present the simulation and mentoring system we developed for use with the JFACC course at Air University. We used cognitive task analysis to understand the issues encountered, critical tasks performed, and difficult decisions made by high-level military commanders. We then embedded these challenges into complex scenarios involving rapidly evolving international crisis situations. This system allows users to exercise their strategic-operational skills while in the midst of a simulated critical event. Using a structured knowledge base that includes lessons learned, doctrine, and AARs, combined with valuable feedback from mentors, the system challenges users to make complex decisions that impact joint and coalition forces, politics, and social/economic structures. This system creates a unique interactive and asynchronous mentoring program. This program will benefit JFACCs by broadening their experience base prior to dealing with real-life incidents. This system fills the void between formal classroom training and real-world experience by providing high-level decision makers with the opportunity to reshape their experience base in an operational command environment.

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Simulation, Training and the Evolving Net-Centric Information Exchange Standards

Year: 2007

Author: Jim Caylor

Abstract:

In April 2006, the Blue Force Tracking (BFT) Community of Interest (COI) got underway. The kickoff meeting was hosted by the Army PEO Command, Control, Communications - Tactical at Fort Monmouth, NJ. BFT COI advocates include Headquarters Department of the Army G-3 Battle Command, Headquarters Marine Corps C4, and Joint Forces Command. The Army is the lead service for this Joint, multinational effort which encompasses all the Services, the DoD, NATO and representatives from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel and the United Kingdom.

BFT is the "Employment of techniques to actively or passively identify and track US, allied, or coalition forces for the purpose of providing the combatant commander enhanced battlespace situational awareness and reducing fratricide." A COI is a "…collaborative group of users who must exchange information in pursuit of their shared goals, interests, missions, or business processes and who therefore must have shared vocabulary for the information they exchange."

The purpose of the BFT COI is to develop, verify and implement an Information Exchange Standard (IES) that facilitates BFT information sharing across the battlespace that is "…visible, accessible, trusted, understandable and in accordance with the DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy".

The purpose of this paper is to report to the I/ITSEC community on the BFT COI effort, the draft standard, and likely impacts on simulation and training. Discussion topics include the relationship with other COIs, accommodating legacy systems, dealing with Service unique operational requirements, and compatibility with other standards such as the Joint Consultation Command & Control Information Exchange Data Model (JC3IEDM).

The work being done by the BFT COI is representative of Net-Centric Warfare (NCW) information sharing initiatives and approaches. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role the simulation and training community could play in the development and implementation of similar net-centric information exchange standards.

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Force Behavior Agents

Year: 2007

Authors: Michael Denny, Bill DeSmedt, Kamal Gella, Mary Hiles, Don May, Sridhar Natarajan, Laurie Waisel, John Wass

Abstract: We report on the development of an agent capability for operational decision-making within a real-time simulation world. A multiple agent system was developed to extend the native behaviors of entities (force units, vehicles, etc.) in tactical simulations. The system endows these entities with intelligent behavior capabilities allowing them to adapt to unexpected scenario situations. The agent system is designed to integrate tightly with the Semi-Automated Forces (SAF) simulators used in live-virtual-constructive simulation environments by DOD and others. Large-scale simulations often entail the necessity of human operators to direct or fill in the ongoing behavior of force units or other entities not being played by trainees or others in the scenario. Force Behavior Agents (FBA) eliminates this staffing requirement, achieves realistic conflict scenarios and, at the same time, simplifies the specification of complex mission scenarios rich in force interaction and variability. In contrast to federate level interaction in High Level Architecture (HLA) communication, FBA is designed to integrate directly with simulators at the fine-grained level of native task frame stacks and simulation state databases. Agent interaction with the simulator's state machines affords the means to adjust unit behavior, including disaggregation, transparently without disrupting normal simulator operations. Selection of alternative behavior tasks during runtime is governed by agents using situation look-ahead trials based strictly on the force unit's qualified sensor capabilities. These look-ahead trials are like sketchy simulations run by the individual agents to find the best alternative courses of action, much as a human commander will survey and compare the tactical options available to his unit. Ontologies define the tactical relations and doctrinal constraints on tasks, and a commercial agent platform provides the decision making environment. An early form of the FBA decision maker and its interface with Joint Semi-Automated Forces (JSAF) simulators was demonstrated to the Joint Forces Command (JFCOM).

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The Path of Transformation: Toward Cost-wise Readiness on a "METL" Track

Year: 2007

Author: David Brown

Abstract:

DOD and the services are in a continual quest for effectiveness and efficiency—with the emphasis on "effectiveness." Force-wide application of the Strategy-to-Task mission analysis-Mission Essential Task List (METL) framework gives us the foundation on which to establish "Cost-wise" Readiness. This paper presents three keys to understanding METL-based cost-wise readiness. First, we will explore the background of Transformation and the Mission Analysis-METL processes which enable MET-based readiness and lead to "Metrics that Matter." Next, we will look inside the Navy at the Navy Warfare Training System's process and operations. Then we will explore the potential for applying an activity-based cost (ABC) scheme to ascertain the dollar value invested in training to raise MET proficiency: a "Cost-wise" Readiness indicator on a METL track.

All DOD Military Training is supposed to be tied to METs. The Joint Training System (JTS) inspired Navy Warfare Training System (NWTS) bases training requirements on Navy Mission Essential Tasks (NMETs). The Defense Readiness Reporting System (DRRS) reports mission readiness on a MET-by-MET basis. The latest development of joint capabilities also employs the METL language of tasks, conditions and standards to describe evolving and transformational capabilities.

By developing systems of "metrics that matter" derived from METLs coupled to the ABC inspired Fleet Training Capability Cost System (FTCCS), naval leaders will be equipped with the insight to achieve "cost-wise" readiness through a sustained process of applied mission analysis and balanced risk management.

The lessons learned from instituting Fleet cost-wise readiness will pave the way for other elements of the joint and integrated force to strive for efficient excellence and enable "One Team, One Fight" success.

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Tools to Help Prepare Soldiers for the Contemporary Operating Environment

Year: 2007

Authors: Gary Riccio, Michael Lerario, Blaise d'Echert, Frederick Diedrich, Jason Sidman, Alexandra Geyer, Tad Brunyé

Abstract: The contemporary operational environment (COE) is rapidly evolving - what worked recently may not work now and probably will not work next week. As the Army operates increasingly as an expeditionary force, it will become even more important to share lessons learned quickly and to promulgate best practices widely. Training requirements are therefore also becoming increasingly dynamic and complex. Instructors must develop timely teaching points that rest on solid doctrinal foundations while addressing current issues. Accordingly, through the sponsorship of the Army Research Institute and the Office of the Secretary of Defense, we are exploring educational strategies and technologies that can close the gap between the classroom and the operational environment. The goal is to provide capabilities that support interactions between students and outside experts in the Contemporary Operational Environment under the control of a Small Group Instructor. The central idea is to enable students to relate classroom concepts to current issues through the guidance of outside experts. In this manuscript we describe the problem, the theoretical background for our approach, and results from our efforts to identify requirements.

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Capabilities-Based Defense Processes

Year: 2007

Author: Vincent Roske

Abstract:

The DOD has adopted a "Capability-based" paradigm for definition, development, fielding and use of military Forces and systems.

Problem: While most of the major Defense assessment and decision making processes claim to have become "capability-based", they remain embedded in the Conceptual models of the earlier systems and requirements based construct. As such, the full potential of the "capabilities-based" paradigm has yet to be realized in Training, Testing, Planning, Acquisition, Joint Capabilities Identification and Development Systems (JCIDS) and other major Defense processes. There is no common capabilities-based conceptual framework or language among these various Defense Processes to integrate their efforts on an objective of identifying, developing, fielding and effectively employing war fighting capability as quickly as possible Most assessment processes (many relaying heavily on M&S constructs) perceive the Joint Operating Environment from a Systems-based perspectives; one within which many of the emerging and increasingly important non-system aspects of current warfare are not detectable.

This presentation offers a new view of the Joint Operating Environment, a Capability/Task Performance-based perspective from which to describe scenarios in common war fighting terms related to mission accomplishment; a view that "sees" all the related activities in a Joint Operating Environment and that enables and facilitates effective design and validation of Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) M&S assemblies of those environments for Training, Concept Development, T&E, Planning, fielding and other Defense planning and Force employment decision making needs and that can relate the performance of any selected capability to the accomplishment of the mission objectives in an over arching Scenario.

The presentation presents this new paradigm, develops the Capability-based perspective, and demonstrates its application in designing effective, efficient LVC constructs for Training applications and other DOD processes and as a unifying framework across the various assessment, capability fielding and operational force application processes in the DOD.

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Integrating Intelligent Structured Training with a Virtual Dismounted Environment

Year: 2007

Authors: Randy Jensen, Coskun Tasoluk, Jason Sims, Henry Marshall, Gary Green

Abstract: The advancing state of the art in dismounted embedded training makes use of helmet-mounted displays, manwearable computers, and other immersive hardware to construct increasingly engaging environments. Within such a frame work, structured training methods provide a means to achieve learning objectives and concept retention, with minimal instructor involvement. Intelligent structured training applies real-time automated evaluation and feedback methods based on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) techniques. This paper reviews results from the integration of an Intelligent Structured Trainer with the embedded Virtual Warrior Soldier prototype developed for the Army RDECOM Simulation and Training Technology Center. Army subject matter experts defined dismounted training objectives and specific requirements for integrated evaluation mechanisms. The paper discusses three areas of research results, both in terms of direct research findings and also how these findings can be applied for future work. First, the effort identified the nature of the data that an integrated structured trainer consumes in order to generate useful real-time feedback for dismounted Soldiers. This data includes not only state information direct from the simulation, but also data reflecting Soldier actions in the primary interface and secondary Command and Control interfaces. Data categories can be generalized and catalogued for future related training efforts. The second research outcome is an analysis of scenario authoring requirements, in terms of SAF (semi-automated forces) performance, terrain database accuracy and consistency, data protocols and availability, and the authoring process itself. Third, user feedback collected from initial experiments with human Participants provide several indicators for the areas of greatest fit or friction between the dismounted training objectives and a structured training approach. This helps define the road ahead, in setting goals for the usability and realism of the training environment, in identifying the dismounted task areas best suited to structured training, and in applying varied methods for automated feedback delivery.

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British Army E-Learning: Mathematics Skills Revision - Game On!

Year: 2007

Author: David Swift

Abstract: This paper describes a synchronous e-Learning Mathematics Skills Revision (MSR) course, developed for students of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME). The courseware takes about 10 hours to complete and is SCORM conformant. MSR has 2 parts: in the first, students work individually, but with optional on-line instructor (e-Moderator) support, at courseware comprising 9 remedial tutorials, each incorporating multiple choice practice and assessments; in the second, students work in a collaborative and competitive game format, again facilitated by an on-line instructor, where they apply their recently revised mathematics skills to a virtual world simulation of a military logistics problem. MSR has been evaluated with some 240 students with positive results. Drawing upon this detailed quantitative and qualitative evaluation, an number of issues are explored, including: (1) the locus of learning efficacy, with particular reference to student self-esteem and motivation; (2) instructional design constraints imposed by SCORM conformancy; (3) e- Moderator skills and on-line facilities; (4) e-Learning courseware production, using a combination of in-house and out-sourced suppliers; (5) e-Pedagogy and Serious Games, where it is argued that the latter actually add little or nothing to e-Pedagogy, notwithstanding the success of MSR in particular, and current worldwide interest and heightened expectations for Serious Games in general.

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Computational Fluid Dynamics for Flight Simulator Ship Airwake Modeling

Year: 2007

Authors: Jeffrey Keller, Glen Whitehouse, Alexander Boschitsch, Juan Nadal, Jeff Jeffords, Marty Quire

Abstract: Modeling and simulation developments have resulted in high fidelity pilot-in-the-loop flight simulators providing realistic training environments. Modeling challenges continue to exist, in particular for accurate simulation of the near-ship environment critical to landing a helicopter onto the flight deck of a moving ship with various wind conditions. Providing an effective simulated environment requires modeling of the highly unsteady airwake resulting from bluff-body aerodynamic interactions of the ship superstructure and hangar near the flight deck and in close proximity to the ship as it passes through the airstream. This paper describes the development of a U.S. Navy rotary wing flight simulation with turbulence effects including high-fidelity representation of the ship airwake environment. The spatially-varying and time-varying flow field around the ship is determined off-line using a hybrid, inviscid CFD methodology that is well-suited for representing the turbulent environment several ship lengths downwind from the flight deck with moderate computational requirements. Results from this off-line analysis are formulated into a ship airwake database for multiple landing platforms and wind-over-deck conditions suitable for real-time pilot-in-the-loop virtual simulation. The paper describes the development of the simulation flight dynamics model, development and validation of the CFD-based ship airwake flow fields, and integration of the ship airwake database within the aerodynamic model. Implementation issues associated with integrating the ship airwake database into the flight dynamics model associated with real-time implementation and memory management are identified, and the approach to overcome these issues are described.

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A Comparative Evaluation of Direct Fire Engagement Simulation Techniques

Year: 2007

Authors: Robert Hall, Matthew Murphy

Abstract: Both training and testing require accurate simulation of direct fire engagements such as rifle shots or tank main guns. Today's systems use lasers to transfer shot information from shooter to targets. The limitations of lasers are well known, and these limitations detract from training and testing realism. The U.S.Army's One Tactical Engagement Simulation System (OneTESS) program is working to improve this state of affairs by augmenting or replacing lasers with "electronic bullets", information packets transferred by wireless networking between shooter and targets. Such packets contain sensor information including shooter's position and weapon orientation at the time of the shot, allowing geometric pairing calculations to determine who would be hit by the shot. However, while pure geo-pairing is the future goal, sensors are not yet accurate enough to support pure geo-pairing that is more accurate than laser-based systems. Hybrid approaches combine lasers with e-bullets, in an attempt to improve laser results by fusing e-bullet-conveyed imperfect sensor information with laser packet information. The goal of this study is to compare several of these candidates in order both to determine what approach is most accurate today, as well as to estimate when sensors will be accurate enough for pure geo-pairing to replace laser-based solutions in the future. Our conclusions are based upon an extensive simulation study of several extant approaches.

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