Found 4765 Papers
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Adaptive Training through Standards for Reconfiguring Serious Game Narratives

Year: 2010

Authors: Geoffrey Frank, Michael Freeman

Abstract:

Games should encourage repeated play by users, consistent with the adult learning theory of deliberate practice. Game design experience indicates that a consistent, relevant, and fresh narrative is critical to player engagement. A challenge for serious game design is inexpensively adapting the narrative to be both relevant and fresh for multiple player sessions while the learning objectives remain the same.

This paper shows how two standards (ISO/IEC 19778 and ISO/IEC 24763) can describe variable narratives for team training that are internally consistent and relevant to the learning objectives. We have enhanced the semantics of ISO/IEC 19778, a standard for collaborative workgroups, to capture the three "R's" of collaboration: Roles, Rights, and Responsibilities. ISO/IEC Technical Report 24763 describes a conceptual reference model for competencies that can formalize learning objectives for serious games in terms of required actions, actors, and outcomes. When used in combination, these standards can help to (1) maximize the reuse of narrative elements, (2) link the learning objectives to aspects of the narrative, and (3) specify elements of the game design that are accessible to the different game design disciplines.

We show how these standards could specify a game and discuss how different elements of the standard would change to (1) vary the scenario for repeated deliberate practice with constant learning objectives, (2) adapt skills for different situations, and (3) make the training more relevant to a particular learner.

Game development is an interdisciplinary effort that requires tradeoffs across disciplines to get the most "bang for the buck." The use of standards to describe the narrative aspects of game designs can assist tradeoffs and allow broader sharing of games for training, providing designers a way of comparing games to see what would have to be modified so that the game could serve a different purpose.

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Training Interventions to Reduce Predator Crew Errors

Year: 2010

Authors: Gregg Montijo, David Kaiser, Jeff Eberhart, V. Spiker, Robert Nullmeyer

Abstract:

As the USAF dramatically expands Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) usage, the explosive growth in flying hours is accompanied by an equally rapid growth in the need to train aircrews and by initiatives to use less experienced personnel as operators. Earlier research revealed that most MQ-1 Predator accidents involved causal human factors, often in four specific aircrew behavioral areas: inadequate crew coordination, channelized attention, task misprioritization, and wrong course of action.

Working with the Predator community, four specific training interventions were developed for pilots and sensor operators in initial qualification training: (1) enhanced academics; (2) web-based interactive mishap case histories; (3) a game-based multi-task skills trainer; and (4) GemaSim, a laptop-based team trainer. The four training interventions were introduced cumulatively over the course of 18 months for 27 different training classes (540 aircrew) using baseline, control and experimental classes. Training effectiveness assessment was structured around Kirkpatrick's Level I (student reaction), Level II (evidence of learning), and Level III (transfer of learning). Level III impacts were evaluated during two specific sorties in training.

Student reactions (Level I) regarding all four treatments were positive, but highest for the GemaSim team trainer and enhanced academics. Student reactions for interactive case studies and multi-task skills training were higher for sensor operators than experienced pilots. Evidence of learning (Level II) was present for all interventions and was statistically significant with the GemaSim intervention and enhanced academics. Positive transfer of learning (Level III) was observed for enhanced academics and the full complement of interventions. As the Air Force moves towards more inexperienced RPA aircrews, these interventions may be useful to not only reduce mishap rates, but also to increase mission effectiveness.

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Configuration Control in a Cross-Distributed Team Environment - Preventing the Tower of Babel

Year: 2010

Authors: Kymberly Martin, Lawrence Rieger

Abstract: The Battle Lab Collaborative Simulation Environment (BLCSE) is a complex consortium of military, government civilians, and contractors tasked with integrating simulation technologies and other supporting applications across geographically distributed sites. A key part of this integration is the interoperability of data between simulations. As projects, missions and teams grow in scope greater data interoperability challenges ensue. Therefore, a clear method to configuration manage and control data sets, their changes and related documentation and other files is necessary. Project management alone isn't enough to ensure experiment success, you must have a data and software configuration management process. Configuration Management (CM) is a method that provides structure to a project. Implementing a configuration managed environment forces discipline where otherwise disorder will ensue. An agreement among participants is paramount to success. The mechanism to provide control is a combination of CM and collaborative tools. This paper describes a standard and documented process for data and software configuration management necessary for terrain, entity data, HLA interoperability files and related configurable items. It also describes lessons learned in establishing a vigorous scheme of configuration management during a major distributed event, compares tools and processes available, and concludes with a discussion of configurable items appropriate to a major distributed simulation event. Armed with the right tools and processes, a simulation management team can properly manage data changes so that the federation enables training and experimentation, and the federation users can train to fight and fight to win.

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Development of a Hybrid Curriculum for Acquiring a Technical Competency

Year: 2010

Authors: John Ruffner, Tracy Sipe, Douglas White, David Gomes

Abstract: Packaging equipment for shipping and storage is a key logistics technical competency. The requisite knowledge and skills are taught using a curriculum consisting of related courses and instructional materials on preservation, packing, and marking. As a result of the Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) initiative, the responsibility for administering the Defense Packaging Curriculum, along with classroom materials, training aids and shop equipment, was transferred from the US Army School of Military Packaging Technology (SMPT) to the US Defense Ammunition Center (DAC). DAC assembled an interdisciplinary development team whose goals were: (1) to consolidate and update the legacy SMPT courses into a unified and coherent curriculum, (2) to identify a unique set of curriculum learning objectives, and (3) to identify an optimal mix of instructional strategies. The team developed a hybrid curriculum that combines an online basic course for off-site study with advanced resident instruction at DAC. The resident instruction systematically extends the use of real-life examples introduced in the online course, and tightly integrates classroom lectures with hands-on practical exercises in a shop environment. The approach uses real-life scenarios and common multimedia across the curriculum elements to promote continuity, cognitive momentum, and training efficiency. We discuss how the team achieved their goals and relate the findings to hybrid curriculum development efforts. We also discuss products and practices developed and lessons learned of value to the education and training communities.

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Integrating an Intelligent Tutoring System for TAOs with Second Life

Year: 2010

Authors: Jeremy Ludwig, Erik Sincoff, Emilio Remolina, Richard Stottler, Anh Nguyen

Abstract: The Tactical Action Officer on board a U.S. Navy Cruiser, Destroyer, or Frigate is responsible for the operation of the entire watch team manning the ship's command center. Responsibilities include tactical decision-making, console operation, communications, and oversight of a variety of watchstander responsibilities in air, surface, and subsurface warfare areas. In previous work the PORTS TAO ITS, an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) for the instruction of Tactical Action Officers (TAOs) was developed to support training at the Surface Warfare Officers School. The system was built on the PC-based Open-architecture Reconfigurable Training System (PORTS). This paper describes a novel extension of the PORTS ITS, where it is integrated with the popular Second Life 3D virtual world. In this integration, the TAO logs on as an avatar in Second Life (SL) and interacts with a number of computer-controlled objects that take on the roles of the TAO's teammates. TAOs rely on the same mechanism to communicate with the simulated teammates in SL as they would to communicate with other human players. That is, the TAO speaks to these simulated teammates using the chat window built into SL and sees their replies and comments in the chat window as well. We provide both a high-level overview of the integration process as well as the details of integrating a deployed training system with the Second Life virtual world. Additionally, this paper presents "food for thought" on how recent advances in technology and social connectivity can be applied to military training domains and outlines proposed future work based on this integration.

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DoDAF System Architecture Linkages to Modeling and Simulation

Year: 2010

Authors: Matthew Carmona, Sean McGervey

Abstract:

Model driven approaches to system architecture development have evolved to provide an effective means of integrating UML-based architecture models with Modeling and Simulation efforts to analyze and help develop system designs within the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) process.

Developing increasingly complex system architectures successfully often involves the use of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) to better understand mission needs, performance constraints, risks, and analysis of alternatives. In the past it was difficult to clearly link system architecture information directly to M&S activities. Standards such as the Systems Modeling Language (SysML), Unified Modeling Language (UML), Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF), Unified Profile for DoDAF and MoDAF (Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework); and UML-based tools support these model driven approaches to develop system architectures with traceability to M&S analyses.

We will discuss the benefits of linking and tracing the system architecture to the M&S analyses performed to better understand mission analysis, functional architecture, and physical design tradeoffs. Then we will present methods and show implementations that create these linkages and traceability. Once established this framework assists to better understand the system requirements at the different levels of abstraction (system concept, logical architecture and physical architecture). Shortcomings and issues that need to be improved are also discussed.

We believe that applying a model driven approach with linkages to M&S greatly supports development of robust systems architectures throughout the system development lifecycle.

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The Challenges of Virtual Environments for Chaplain-Soldier Interactions

Year: 2010

Author: M. Pettitt

Abstract:

For many years the military has used simulation environments to train a wide range of combat-related tasks. Recently the Army Material Command Chaplain identified the need to leverage existing simulation capabilities for training new techniques and supporting patient care provided by military chaplains in the contemporary operating environment which has caused increased stress and demands on the Chaplains. They are faced with multiple priorities, and high profile issues such as suicide, drugs, PTSD, etc, caused by multiple and extended deployments. This analysis will attempt to define parts of the Chaplains' mission where simulation may be applicable and then assess the utility and challenges of using a number of existing simulation technologies and training platforms to meet the needs of the Chaplains Corps now and in the future.

The study will include an analysis of the Chaplains' roles and responsibilities including interviews with the RDECOM Chaplain and other active duty Chaplains. Following the identification of training gaps, the study will examine simulations and technologies to include: gaming systems for combat care such as TC3/CBCTS, Interactive Virtual Humans currently used for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) identification and treatment, and virtual worlds. In addition, the study will explore novel and innovative ways for a chaplain to meaningfully interact with the patient/counselee, whether it be grief counseling, administering last rites, or more traditional religious instruction such as scriptural study, administering communion, and other religious rites and practices.

As our forces transition to Stability and Support Operations (SASO), and peacekeeping operations, the issues surrounding multiple cultural interactions will be considered, in addition to the social structure necessary to support the warrior returning home from a deployment. Several on-going technology initiatives related to cultural behaviors and the care of non-combatants will be evaluated for the application of this technology to the chaplain training role

The output of this study will be a proposed path forward to modify and adapt some of these existing technologies. Based on a cognitive task analysis and a training gap analysis of the Chaplains' mission, promising technologies such as virtual patients, virtual worlds and intelligent human behavior representations will be considered for use in the training of Chaplains and new methodologies to connect Chaplains and the patient through tele-medicine and outreach care.

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Live Virtual Constructive Architecture Roadmap (LVCAR) Convergence Approaches

Year: 2010

Author: Randy Saunders

Abstract: The Live Virtual Constructive Architecture Roadmap (LVCAR) study sponsored by the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Steering Committee recommended a risk reduction investigation of technical approaches for convergence of simulation architectures. The LVCAR Implementation project conducted this investigation. This paper presents the results and recommendations for convergence of M&S architectures. The investigation was performed by architecture Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) from the Common Training Instrumentation Architecture (CTIA), Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), High Level Architecture (HLA) and Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) development teams. The SMEs examined the services and tools provided by each of the legacy architectures to identify which were significant to converged execution in a multi-architecture event. Analysis showed that future evolutions of the legacy architectures might integrate much more readily. As a result of collaboration between architecture engineering teams and limited additional changes, new versions of the legacy architectures can much more easily and effectively be combined. The converged architecture envisioned execution of unmodified simulations in a multi-architecture event. This converged execution would contain simulations that need not be aware that multiple architectures are in use and parts of the support infrastructure of the legacy infrastructures. Possible implementations were considered before selecting an approach which only impacts infrastructure providers. Activities were defined by the SMEs, considering each legacy architecture, to construct a common simulation infrastructure and couple it into each legacy architecture. By shifting to a common implementation, rather than adding another layer of infrastructure, existing performance is maintained.

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Training Tactical Behavior Profiling Skills for Irregular Warfare

Year: 2010

Authors: Alan Spiker, Joan Johnston, Greg Williams, Clarke Lethin

Abstract: In 2008, the Department of Defense placed the mission of Irregular Warfare (IW) on an equal footing with conventional warfare in future military planning and operations. IW objectives are to provide a continuum of capabilities for dealing with complex and increasingly asymmetrical challenges to US military and geo-political interests, including new approaches for dealing with counter-terrorism, counter-insurgency, stabilization, and reconstruction / rehabilitation of adversary states. The focus on the human terrain and the nature of the adversaries has led to greater demand for small infantry units operating in a distributed manner throughout large operational areas. A significant challenge is that each individual in a squad must become an expert in "acting as a sensor" to develop an accurate, and actionable, common operational picture. Past research has demonstrated that to enable a team of experts to become an expert team an integrated set of training tools, methods, and strategies must be provided (Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2000). Consequently, the Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) has collaborated with the services to increase IW training capability, availability and trainee throughput. In this paper we report on findings from a JFCOM-sponsored workshop and three field studies to provide recommendations for delivering tactical behavior profiling training to a broader audience employing a learning environment that prepares, solidifies and reinforces critical skills for IW.

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Using Games to Accelerate Aircrew Cognitive Training

Year: 2010

Authors: Tricia Mautone, V. Spiker, M. Karp, Curtis Conkey

Abstract:

Game-based training (GBT) is a promising medium for increasing the efficiency of training complex cognitive skills and improving performance. However, there is little empirical research to guide decisions about when, or whether, GBT should be integrated into a professional training curriculum. To fill this void, we developed a rule-based decision tool that helps identify which training areas would likely benefit from the insertion of GBT technology, and then makes recommendations about which game elements and design patterns (e.g., type of challenges, feedback format, etc.) would be most appropriate for games targeting those skill areas.

To develop and test the tool, we conducted an analysis of the undergraduate pilot training program at Arizona State University, identifying flight management system (FMS) operation as a good candidate for GBT. Using our analysis of the task environment, we then selected potential best-fit game elements to develop a fully-functional web-based game to train student pilots how to program an aircraft's FMS quickly and accurately. The game's effectiveness was then evaluated in a series of studies in which half the students received the FMS game and half received conventional computer-based training. All students then took transfer criterion tests, using a simulated FMS device. On near and delayed transfer tests, students who received GBT scored significantly higher (making fewer errors and omissions) than their counterparts who received conventional training (p<.05).

Using lessons learned from our FMS game development and evaluation, we then applied the GBT tool to create and evaluate a new training game for a different domain, aircrew communication. The paper provides an analysis of the FMS and crew communication game designs, the quantitative results of the criterion evaluations, and provides a roadmap for how to facilitate the development of effective training games by migrating proven GBT design patterns to comparable training applications.

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