Found 153 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 2005
A Composable Behavior Modeling System for Rapidly Constructing Human Behaviors

Year: 2005

Authors: Christopher J. Garcia., Todd W. Griffith

Abstract:

There are currently two predominant paradigms for modeling and simulating human behaviors in synthetic combat environments. One approach simply accumulates common behaviors that follow standard military doctrine into simulation engines. The other involves constructing high-fidelity models of the mental processes involved in performing domain-specific tasks. Both approaches require technical staff, significant costs, and time to modify or add a single behavior. Recent research in composable behavior modeling systems, however, has shown great promise of such systems to offer powerful, cost-efficient alternatives.

This paper describes an ontology-based, simulation-independent, composable behavior modeling system developed under funding from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Affordable Human Behavior Modeling (AHBM) program. This system supports rapid composition by non-technical staff of both standard military behaviors as well as sophisticated and flexible behaviors suitable for tactics-based experimentation. It utilizes an ontology which specifies an XML-based structure for representing behavioral compositions from primitive-level behaviors and conditions. The ontology specifies only the structure of these primitive behaviors and conditions, thus allowing sets of domain-specific, simulation-independent, atomic-level behaviors and conditions developed by subject matter experts to be easily incorporated into and interchanged within the system; there they can be composed into complex behaviors. In addition, since the execution of a composed behavior (in terms of when to execute and react to primitive behaviors and conditions) lies solely in its structure, this structural execution functionality can be encapsulated and reused. The AHBM system encapsulates this functionality into a portable agent. Thus, integration with a new simulation engine is accomplished through only wrapping or creating the primitive behaviors and conditions.

This paper presents the AHBM system along with the composition ontology and execution agent architecture, and assesses its power, utility, and cost-effectiveness in comparison to conventional behavior modeling approaches.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Agile Training - Infusing a Culture of Innovation into Training Warfighters

Year: 2005

Authors: COL(R) Matt Fair, COL(R) John Antal

Abstract: Training is a cornerstone of our Army. In the 2005 Army Posture Statement, Well-Trained Soldiers led by Adaptive Leaders is one of the four key areas supporting Transformation. Currently we are fighting a 21st century enemy with many burdensome training tools and systems. We are fighting an adaptive/learning enemy and we need to be agile enough to anticipate and adapt to his changes in techniques in near real or real time. We must change our mindset as stated in a recent TRADOC website article "Adapt or Die" which stresses the need for a culture of innovation. In addition, we must have the flexibility to train across the full spectrum of warfare at a moment's notice. There are exceptions, but agility is not currently a high priority in the training community. We propose using an Agile Program Management mindset to lay out a road map for providing training to our warfighters. The warfighter must take advantage of existing tools/technologies, like commercial games, and make 'good enough' adaptations to provide agile solutions for our Soldiers, Marines, Sailors, Airmen and Coast Guard. We will show how some of these ideas were used to quickly develop the successful Gauntlet Training Program used by the 16th Cavalry Regiment at Fort Knox to train Armor/Cavalry Soldiers. Some of these techniques included: quickly defining 'good enough' requirements; using commercial products to provide rapid prototypes and solutions; using simulation to provide multiple events at a low cost per iteration; and leveraging the skills of the instructors. We will also provide some lessons learned from the Gauntlet program and propose some ideas for a way ahead. Change is occurring at an astounding rate in our services today, and we must be ready with processes and products that support innovation to facilitate our agility on today's and tomorrow's battlefield.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Team Exposure Stress Training (TEST): An Approach for Reducing Stress

Year: 2005

Authors: Shatha N. Samman, Laura Milham

Abstract: Many military teams must operate in exceptionally stressful environments (e.g., battlefield) that include both physical (e.g., noise) and psychological stressors (e.g., time pressure). Often, exposure to such environments results in negative responses (e.g., subjective anxiety). To remedy these reactions, it has been suggested that repeated exposure to stress can decrease negative responses (Driskell & Johnston, 1998), allowing trainees to develop and perfect coping strategies. However, to date there has been little in the way of stress training intervention for teams. At the individual level, Stress Exposure Training (SET) has been used successfully to enhance affective responses to stress. It attempts to enhance the individual s performance by providing them with an understanding of anticipated stressors and responses (physiological and behavioral) in addition to practice under stressful conditions. With practice, trainees are able to apply their coping skills while being gradually exposed to stressors. Thus, by teaching coping strategies and allowing practice sessions, trainees are able to inhibit automatic negative responses to stress and achieve higher performance levels. This same concept may be leveraged to enhance team performance under stress. This paper proposes an extension of SET to teams (Team Exposure Stress Training (TEST)), which would be aimed at enhancing a team s ability to cope with stressors. Specifically, teams must maintain team process skills to maximize performance (Cannon-Bowers & Salas, 1998). Given this, the crux of TEST is to provide teams with knowledge on stress, define the skills and strategies needed to overcome negative effects, and practice within a stressful environment. This paper will discuss how this method can be applied to Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) teams.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Simulating the New Mode 5 and S IFF Systems

Year: 2005

Author: Frank Hill

Abstract:

Implementing Mode 5 and Mode S IFF in simulation will be a major challenge for the simulation training community due to the sheer number of simulators that will need to be upgraded along with the changes to simulation protocols used to exchange the data. Mode 5 IFF is the much awaited replacement for Mode 4 IFF, the encrypted military system designed to assure positive electronic identification of friendly units on the battlefield. Mode Select (S) is a civilian enhancement to the present Mark XII system that will provide enhanced aircraft information for air traffic control and in support of military operations. Military aircraft will be required to have Mode S in addition to their present IFF mode capabilities in addition to Mode 5. Many of the U.S., NATO and Coalition partners' military aircraft, ships, vehicles and C4ISR units that have Mode 4 interrogators or transponders will be upgraded to the new Mode 5 capability by the end of the decade. Mode S is being phased in for commercial and military platforms over the next 1-5 years. A brief overview of real-world Mode 5 and Mode S IFF will be presented.

The Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) Mode 5/Mode S IFF Study Group is actively developing draft changes to the DIS protocol and to HLA FOMs, TENA and associated gateways with the participation of government agencies and defense contractors. They are also preparing design guidelines for upgrading simulators, simulation programs, and simulation interface devices to handle Mode 5 and S IFF. The status of this effort and an overview of the proposed changes will be presented. Simulated Link-16 is also affected and will be discussed. Updating simulation standards and simulators for Mode 5 and Mode S in a timely manner is critical to ensure that the warfighter will be able to train in a simulated environment that coincides with the introduction of these modes in the real world.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
A Graph-based Approach for Automatic Building Extraction from Aerial LIDAR Data

Year: 2005

Authors: Vivek Verma, Rakesh Kumar, Stephen Hsu, Victor Santiago

Abstract:

Realistic 3D city models are used in important applications such as flight simulators, war game simulations, security & surveillance, entertainment, etc. Many of these applications require that the model be as close as possible to the real world that it simulates, both in terms of geometry and texture. Recently, aerial LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has gained popularity as a way to quickly collect 3D information about a site. LIDAR scanning of a site produces dense, unorganized points that require further processing to identify buildings, trees, and bare ground.

We present a fully automatic approach to creating 3D geometric models of the buildings and terrain from LIDAR data. Our objective is to create compact, watertight geometric models of buildings that fit as close as possible to the original LIDAR points using the minimum number of triangles, as opposed to a dense mesh. We propose to model the class of buildings that can be constructed by combining several simpler prismatic models. Such primitives are also amenable to automatic semantic interpretation as well as intuitive interactive editing.

We first segment the building roofs, trees, and terrain from the LIDAR points. We next fit local planar patches to the segmented roof points that are then grouped together to identify individual faces of the roof as polygons. By analyzing their proximity to each other, we construct a planar graph that represents the topology of the roof structure, including adjacency, symmetry, and orthogonality constraints between roof faces. Instances of simple prismatic models in the scene, such as hip roof configurations, can be identified by subgraph matching. The geometric parameters of these models are then refined based on the original point cloud. Using the above approach we can automatically model complex roofs by combining simpler prismatic objects.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Design Structures for Intrinsic Motivation

Year: 2005

Author: Richard H. Swan

Abstract: Education as a whole does little to activate students' intrinsic motivation. Thus, students see education as something they have to do rather than something they want to do. The discussion of intrinsic motivation often centers around games. While games are engaging and motivational, they are not always the most appropriate solution. In some ways, the issue of engagement and games obscures the more fundamental issue: perception of relevance. This paper explores the role of motivation in establishing relevance; the range of general types of learning experience, and; a design structures that can be applied to any experience type that is derived from industries that rely on designing experiences, such as computer games, motion pictures, literature, etc. These structures and some of their implications for instruction are briefly discussed.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Validating Human Behavior Representations: Moving Beyond "Preaching" To "Practice"

Year: 2005

Authors: Gwendolyn E. Campbell, Amy E. Bolton

Abstract: While it is widely agreed that human behavior representations (HBRs) must be validated before they are incorporated into military simulations, there is much less agreement on what activities and evidence satisfy validation requirements. In this paper we will begin by discussing psychological taxonomies of theory and measurement validity, identifying some insights that the Department of Defense Modeling and Simulation community might gain from these well-established paradigms. This discussion will include brief descriptions of a variety of techniques for collecting validity evidence gleaned from the psychological research literature. While qualitative evidence will be mentioned, special emphasis will be placed on quantitative techniques for assessing HBR validity. A number of relevant issues, such as appropriate and inappropriate statistical tests, overfitting data, and model complexity, will be addressed. Next, we will discuss some limitations of the psychological perspective in general and for our community in particular. Finally, we will expand on Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's definition of validity and illustrate how this definition provides guidance for additional HBR assessment measures and processes that are highly appropriate for the military user community.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Designing a Block Assessment of Training Transformation

Year: 2005

Authors: Annie Patenaude, Fred Hartman

Abstract: The DoD Training Transformation (T2) program, as outlined in the "Training Transformation Strategic Plan (March 1, 2002)," has two major, interrelated missions: The first is to transform training to better enable joint operations in the future. The second is to function as the key enabler to achieving the operational goals of the overarching transformation of the Department of Defense. In the T2 Strategic Plan, DoD leadership and stakeholders recognized the requirement for the assessment and reporting of joint training readiness, joint and interoperability training performance, and overall T2 program performance. Training Transformation's impact on training, and training's impact on joint operations, as aspects of force readiness, must be assessed and reported in order to provide effective feedback mechanisms for programmatic decisions and lessons learned. The impact of training and T2 on the emerging training needs of DoD Force Transformation also must be assessed and reported. The T2 Implementation Plan established biennial Joint Assessment Enabling Capability (JAEC)-led Block Assessments as the primary mechanism for assessing joint training capabilities and T2 integration and management. The first of these Block Assessments will occur in FY 2005. The 2005 Block Assessment will examine and leverage the Training Capabilities Analysis of Alternatives, the DoD Balanced Score Card, the Defense Readiness Reporting System and the Individual Training Readiness Report to provide consistent measures of merit for Training Transformation. This paper and presentation will address approach and metrics development for the Block Assessment.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Live Training Transformation (LT2) - A Strategy for Future Army and Joint Live Training

Year: 2005

Authors: Paul Dumanoir, Jorge Rivera

Abstract: The Live Training Transformation (LT2) is a strategy that utilizes product line engineering development concepts and principles to guide the acquisition of the family of live training programs under the purview of U.S. Army Program Executive Office (PEO) Simulation Training and Instrumentation (STRI), Program Manager for Training Devices (PM TRADE). The LT2 strategy addresses a set of operational requirements defined by approved Operational Requirements Documents (ORDs), and is being transformed into an Army program as a Family of Training Systems (FTS) documented in the LT2-FTS Initial Capability Document (ICD). The LT2 product line management concept of operations focuses on the holistic requirements of all Live domain training systems, with the objective to maximize component reuse, reduce fielding time, minimize programmatic costs, and enhance training benefits afforded to the soldier. Through successful execution of the product line strategy, LT2 will deliver a set of common components that provide integrated and interoperable training solutions for live collective training across the home stations, Combat Training Centers (CTCs), deployed, and Joint training domains. This paper describes the innovative approach PEO STRI is using to manage the LT2 product line. In doing so it details the combination of organizations, processes, and technologies that encompass the LT2 concept to include the product line architecture known as the Common Training Instrumentation Architecture (CTIA). In addition, this paper describes how the LT2 product line is being used to support the Future Combat System (FCS) Training Common Component (TCC) program and how it will interoperate with other Army and Joint architectures in support of a Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) training and test solution.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Design of a Multi-National Federation for Combined Exercises: The ROK and US Army's Ground Simulation Systems

Year: 2005

Authors: LTC Yong Hyo Kim, Major Chaehwa Lee, Won-Don Lee

Abstract:

The CJ21(ChangJo21) was first developed and fielded by the TRADOC(Training and Doctrine Command) of the ROK(Republic of Korea) Army in 1999, replacing the Corp Battle Simulation (CBS) for the ROK Army Battle Command Training Program (BCTP). Currently the CJ21 is actively used to train the commanders and staff of the Corps and Divisions in the ROK Army.

Since then, the ROKA Army TRADOC has been engaged in developing the CJ21_NG(ChangJo21_Next Generation Simulation System) that is HLA-Compliant to be used in such combined exercises as in UFL(Ulchi Focus Lens) or RSOI(Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration) as a member of the JTC(Joint Training Confederation)/JIS(JTC Infrastructure Software). The CJ21_NG is capable of interoperating with the US Army ground model, the CBS, within the JTC/JIS training system. Since 2002 the technical feasibility of interoperability between these two models has been verified through ROK-US Combined Confederation Tests conducted at the Korea Battle Simulation Center (KBSC).

Federations composed of Navy, Army, and Air Force models have been developed in many countries. However, a federation of two large-scale multi-national ground models has not yet been studied. Therefore, this study has significance in two perspectives; the two large ground simulations are connected in one federation and the federation is a multi-national training federation for ROK-US combined exercises.

This paper, first, presents the development requirements for the CJ21_NG. Secondly, Using the FEDEP(Federation Development and Execution Process) model, the procedure to develop the CJ21_NG SOM is elaborated and the FOM of CJ21_NG included-JTC is suggested, followed by the CBS development requirements for interoperability with CJ21_NG. Thirdly, this paper describes the CJ21_NG's interoperability with Hwarang21 and with the US CBS, Air and Navy models. In the following section, the issues in designing the CJ21_NG and CBS federation discussed. Finally, this paper concludes with a summary and the recommendations for CBS and CJ21_NG developers.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login