Found 82 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1995
Team Performance in Multi-Service Distributed Interactive Simulation Exercises: Initial Results

Year: 1995

Authors: Randall Oser, Daniel Dwyer, Jennifer Fowlkes

Abstract: Desert Storm has clearly demonstrated the growing reliance on geographically separated, multi-service teams who are called upon to execute specific missions. Future conflicts can similarly be expected to require close coordination between teams from different services. Fortunately, advances in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) technology are paving the way for members of different commands and different services to simultaneously come together to fight a simulated war on a synthetic battlefield. While advancements in simulation and networking technologies hold great promise for training applications, little is known about how multi-service teams perform in a DIS environment. The Multi-Service Distributed Training Testbed (MDT2) was recently used in one of the first tryouts of DIS technology for training personnel from all services in multi-service Close Air Support (CAS). The MDT2 exercises represented a unique opportunity to systematically collect multi-service team performance data in a DIS training environment. The team performance data were collected during a 4-day series of exercises conducted in May 1994 and from a 5-day series of exercises conducted in February 1995. This paper describes one of the techniques used for the team performance measurement, presents trends in the data, delineates the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for evaluating team performance and mission effectiveness in DIS training environments.

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Speech Recognition as an Interface for CBT

Year: 1995

Author: Wayne Creech

Abstract:

Much effort has been directed to providing computer applications with a user input or interface that improves the quality of the communication between man and machine. Such an interface is proposed to be a dominant force in determining user productivity, performance, and satisfaction. Speech recognition (SR), or natural language, interface shows much promise, but this application has usually been confined to controlling the computer or causing the computer to control other devices. Some researchers, however, are saying that a natural language interface is one of the most promising for use in the long term for simplicity of learning. If this is true, then it follows that SR would be ideal as the interface for computer-based training (CBT).

This paper summarizes a study conducted to determine if SR is an effective CBT interface for cognitive processing which affects short-term memory and, in turn, Original Learning (OL). It addresses how one determines if learning has been affected by SR and how it is measured. The study built upon past interface research which attempted to quantify a learning effect when using a variety of interfaces. These studies helped determine a framework to measure learning effectiveness and to quantify the measurement of learning when SR is used as the primary interface.

The methods and procedures applied in an experimental study are presented, results examined, and recommendations for further study are discussed.

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A Legacy Model for Tomorrow's Training

Year: 1995

Authors: Marie Pope, Dennis Miller

Abstract:

Modeling and simulation is becoming increasingly important as defense spending decreases. As a result, technologies must be developed such that real-world scenario complexity levels can be trained. Establishing a virtual combat training environment is one of the key technologies that will provide best value on investments in new training systems. The final working configuration of a virtual combat training environment will not be a single technology developed from a single program, but a fusion of technologies, new and old, integrated such that desired capabilities and performance are achieved.

Providing a Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) interface to a Legacy Model is an example of fusing new and old technologies. A Legacy Model is a general term given to government simulation programs that have been in use for many years and enjoy a large user community. SUPPRESSOR is one example of a Legacy Model for which a DIS interface has been developed, resulting in the expanded use of this tool by DOD communities for new purposes. SUPPRESSOR is traditionally used in the analytical community for survivability analysis and COEAs, but now offers solutions to critical combat training tasks common across many service requirements. Insight into interfacing Legacy Models to DIS will be given by drawing upon the lessons learned with SUPPRESSOR. Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of using an asynchronous Legacy Model for tomorrow's real-time training will be discussed.

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Memory Architectures for Real-Time Computing

Year: 1995

Author: Alfredo Romagosa

Abstract: Traditional Multiprocessing research assumed uniform shared memory architectures. In recent years, a great deal of literature has been published in the use of Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architectures. However, most of this literature has been in the context of general purpose computing. This paper evaluates memory architectures in the context of real-time applications such as aircraft simulation. Different hardware memory architectures are compared, including cache issues. Operating System issues, such as default and user-selectable memory assignment policies and process migration are discussed for these hardware architectures and considering their applicability to different kinds of real-time applications. The complexity of some of these policies often limit their suitability for user selection. The paper also discusses tools that assist users in evaluating memory configurations and in tailoring and tuning configurations and policies for specific applications.

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Instructor Training Using Embedded Training Courseware (ETC)

Year: 1995

Authors: Jeffery Russell, Gerald St. George

Abstract:

The Seawolf Ship Control Operator Trainer (SCOT) uses Embedded Training Courseware (ETC) as the primary method to train and familiarize instructors with the trainer's operational and instructional capabilities. The ETC consists of a series of self-paced interactive, computer-controlled, branched tutorial lessons arrayed on two separate levels of instruction according to complexity and dynamics. The level 1 lessons include instructor tasks, familiarization, and power-up/power-down procedures. The level 2 ETC lessons include interactive practice at the Instructor Operator Station (IOS) in a real time environment in developing, setting-up and conducting an exercise as well as measuring individual progress.

This paper examines how the Seawolf SCOT ETC provides an effective self-paced training and practice environment for instructors to develop individual skills related to conducting training exercises.

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Mission Adaptable Learningsystem (MAPL) for Out of Area Missions

Year: 1995

Authors: Hartmut Sommer, Albert Wimmel, Gustav Schulz

Abstract:

For the participation of the German Armed Forces in out of area missions the contingents have to be prepared for the mission area before being deployed. After the political decision has been taken the necessary training has to be accomplished in a very short period of time. The fact that in many cases we do not know the mission area in advance because of the increasing number of crisis areas in the world makes matters more complex. On the other hand, training quality will be affected if training media are not provided and the relevant data on the mission area are not available.

The solution being considered in the described study is a "Mission Adaptable Learning System (MAPL)" consisting of a central database providing all information on the probable mission areas including text, graphics, pictures, video spots combined with a multi-media system designed to be fed with a mission relevant subset of the central database, a CBT-software designed to present different subsets of the central database to the learners in the same efficient way and an easy way to handle systems to distribute mission relevant subsets of the central database to the troops assigned to take part in a mission.

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Distributed Curriculum Development Environments: Techniques and Tools

Year: 1995

Author: Eric Patrick

Abstract:

Current off-the-shelf software tools for development of World Wide Web hypertext markup language (HTML) offer an environment to develop both static and interactive training and educational tools for distributed use. The combination of these low cost tools with a robust interactive environment such as the World Wide Web provides a medium for the development, maintenance and delivery of dynamic lesson plans and training aids.

The widespread availability of World Wide Web browsers, typically written for the Windows or Mac-based graphical user interfaces, provides a training medium that requires little learning time and consistency across the personal computing industry. The integration of text, sound and graphics into lesson plans offers a standard delivery mechanism across platforms. As the computer industry develops more robust HTML additions, this environment will offer greater capabilities in the future at a very low cost.

Developing training plans for joint use by ROTC and Maritime Academies has already begun on an informal basis. Existing college and university access to the Internet means that courses may be developed and viewed on existing hardware, requiring only the addition of a WWW server as a common network location. Internet access allows these training plans to include sources of material beyond the capability of a single command to provide. Development procedures aside, this environment also enables nearly instantaneous user feedback to developers via email.

Network based curriculum development will facilitate adoption of resources such as the Internet and World Wide Web, as well as provide a medium for remote collaboration. On a very basic level, a file may be created and updated by instructors from remote locations by uploading and downloading via Internet FTP. For a more rigorous control over HTML files, groupware can be implement over a TCP/IP network. Furthermore, real-time collaboration is possible via remote application sharing software such as Intel's ProShare. Each of these technologies builds on the others, and are based on industry standard applications. This will assure longevity and low cost as such a development and training system is developed and expanded in the future.

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A Server to Provide the State of the Atmosphere to Distributed Interactive Simulations

Year: 1995

Authors: Eric Schmidt, Maureen Cianciolo, W. Smith, Robert Reynolds

Abstract:

The rationale for designing a server for ingesting, integrating, storing, and distributing the state of the atmosphere is presented. The server supports distributed interactive simulations and can be used for extensive training exercises. An overview of the server design is provided, with a review of each of its five component modules: the database, integrator, viewer, distributor and simulator. The server supports client applications in several modes, including predistribution of an archived database and active distribution for live exercises in a real-time atmospheric environment. Each component of the weather server is discussed in terms of the factors that influenced the design rationale.

The set of variables representing the state of the atmosphere was selected by a three step process: first, atmospheric features were identified and characteristics of the atmosphere that correspond to the features were specified. Second, the effects of the atmospheric environment were related to features observed, such as thunderstorms, blizzards, etc. Finally, characteristic atmospheric variables were mapped into the effects that they produced. These effects impact decisions made at the command and field levels. A typical scenario is presented to show that a variety of atmospheric conditions and effects must be considered to support informed decision processes and accurate personnel training in live, virtual, and constructed exercises.

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Challenges in Air Traffic Control Simulation

Year: 1995

Author: Graham Upton

Abstract:

Training Air Traffic Controllers in a simulator is not a new idea. However, recent technological advances, particularly in the real-time graphic engine cost/performance ratios, have dramatically changed the design of these training devices. For the ATC Tower Simulator, large model boards where miniature aircraft models are moved by hand are being replaced by powerful image generators with sophisticated databases of specific airport designs.

This paper will address today's technology that is available for training tomorrow's Air Traffic Controller. As the technology is advancing the customer's requirements and expectations in training from a tower simulator are also being raised, creating challenges for the simulator manufacturer.

Both Commercial and Military Air Traffic Controllers are putting high demands on issues such as aircraft recognition and identification. These issues present challenges in the real-time graphic simulation and display technology versus an affordable simulator using off-the-shelf technology with low maintenance costs. High-resolution displays, simulated binoculars and zoom functions are discussed as ways of combatting these challenges.

Additional requirements demand voice recognition systems that are pushing today's technology with expectations of greater than a 95% recognition rate for all normal ATC type commands.

Military customers are also demanding systems that can be rapidly deployed to combat or relief situations world wide. The almost instant creation of local airfield databases can soon be provided to customers through tools that are becoming available in the Industry. DIS interfacing is also required from Military customers to provide networking to a complete range of other Training Systems.

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True Confessions of a Process Action Team

Year: 1995

Author: Linda Kageff

Abstract: This paper describes the formation of the first Process Action Team (PAT) in Defense Programs (DP), which is a program area in the Department of Energy (DOE). PATs exist to allow the workforce to participate in solving problems that might traditionally be the responsibility of managers. This process is intended to empower the workforce and to lead to greater productivity through motivation and increase in self-esteem. The PAT in DP had a mission to produce an action plan to define the training and qualification needs across this DOE program area. Both the team processes and the product will be discussed. Lessons learned will be presented from the point of view of the PAT facilitator.

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