Found 95 Papers
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Volume 1993
A Neural-Network-Programmable Processor for Real-Time Correlated Sensor Simulation

Year: 1993

Authors: Budimir Zvolanek, Erwin Baumann

Abstract: Simulation of Infra-Red (IR), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), and Out- The-Window (OTW) visual imagery plays an important role in the planning and rehearsal of missions and personnel training. The challenge is to develop database and image generation systems that extremely rapidly and in real time process geo-specific Multi- Spectral Imagery (MSI) over large areas into simulated sensor imagery to achieve high real-world accuracy and sensor/OTW-visual correlation. To meet this challenge, a novel architecture called a Neural Network Look-Up Table (NNLUT) which implements spectral conversion by neural networks has been developed. The NNLUT processor is described and examples of highly correlated IR and SAR imagery simulated in real time from MSI by the NNLUT are demonstrated.

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Classification of Electronic Classrooms for Use of Instructional Protocols

Year: 1993

Authors: William Platt, Ivor Davies, James McConville, Stephen Guynn, Gary Orwig, Charles Bollmann, Ron Bower, Marvin Smith

Abstract: Recent developments in electronics and computer science have been so dramatic that their incorporation into classroom design has caused the term electronic classroom to come into wide use. The purpose of this paper is to explore basic design and training issues for the electronic classroom and to isolate effective practices where they can be identified from experience in the field. To this end, several training sites were investigated to review the teaching and learning that were taking place. Experienced-Derived models of classroom procedure were developed for each situation. A system of notation was created that captured classroom interaction, media use, and personal control. A design classification was used to formulate protocols that fit each situation. The protocols covered steps needed to implement each strategy by incorporating type and frequency of interaction, information source input, communication patterns, locus of control, and type of feedback. The instructional protocols are sets of operating procedures for instructors to use in planning and executing instruction in electronic classrooms depending on the type of electronic classroom. The protocols were devised as a practical extension of learning theory modified by field experience.

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A Context-Based Representation of Tactical Knowledge for Use in Simulation-Based Autonomous Intelligent Platforms

Year: 1993

Authors: Avelino Gonzalez, Robert Ahlers

Abstract:

The focus of the investigation described in this paper is the development of a concise, yet rich knowledge representation paradigm that could be effectively and efficiently used to model the intelligent behavior of simulated agents in a simulator-based tactical trainer. The behavior of these agents would be similar to that of an adversary who would react to a student's action in a manner representative of enemy tactics. The availability of this feature would be of significant utility to the training process for two reasons: 1) the student would face a realistic enemy who is knowledgeable about tactics in the domain of interest and, 2) the instructor would not have to be burdened with playing the part of the enemy in those training systems where this is commonly done.

The hypothesis presented is that whereas tactical knowledge is highly dependent upon the context (i.e., the situation being faced), a combination of script-like structures and pattern-matching rules in an object-oriented environment could serve as a concise means of representing the knowledge involved, as well as an efficient means of reasoning with that knowledge. This hypothesis was tested through the development of a prototype system that implemented the knowledge of a submarine tactical officer on a patrol mission. The prototype was implemented in CLIPS 5.1, a rule and object-based expert system shell developed by NASA. The results of the prototype show that the combination of scripts and rules in an object-oriented environment promises to meet the requirements described above.

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Beyond Visual Range Extensions to DIS

Year: 1993

Authors: Ken Doris, Grace Mak-Cheng

Abstract:

The successful 1992 I/ITSEC demonstration of DIS was a significant milestone in the development of the DIS protocols, proving that Version 1.0 of the standard is truly workable. Although the plans for the 1993 I/ITSEC demonstration focus on long-haul and live participant involvement, a vital ingredient to the eventual success of distributed simulation lies in the ability of subsequent versions of DIS to adequately support beyond visual range (BVR) encounters.

Simulation of BVR effects within the DIS context offers substantial increases to training effectiveness, tactics development, and improvements to the acquisition process. To achieve these goals we must overcome a new set of challenges. SIMNET, the predecessor to DIS, provided a solid background in the development of version 1.0 of DIS, but was limited to within visual range encounters. The BVR extensions found in DIS Version 2.0 can thus borrow little from the SIMNET legacy. New problems, such as sensor simulation, EW data base correlation, and environmental effects must be addressed.

This paper provides insight into the key issues associated with extending DIS to encompass the beyond visual range arena. In addition, it describes series of rapid prototype implementations of the Emitter, Transmitter, and Signal PDUs, starting with a joint Grumman/NTSC experiment held on the last day of the 1992 I/ITSEC show. The "lessons learned" from these implementations are discussed along with suggestions and guidelines for future development of BVR PDUs and associated data bases.

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Lessons Learned from a CBT Development Team

Year: 1993

Authors: Peter Lhotka, Todd Gorrell, Troy Rose, Jeanine Butler, Sheri Semrau, Curt Taylor, Terry Smith

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to document the lessons learned during development of actual Computer Based Training (CBT) and to provide practical recommendations on how to meet the "challenges" of producing quality CBT. Topics of discussion will include resource acquisition, project development procedures, and courseware implementation.

The mission of the Interactive Courseware branch includes producing quality interactive courseware (ICW) to train a variety of tasks for fighter aircraft operations. The branch has developed lessons in fighter aircraft operations, avionics integration, and precision guided munitions delivery.

ICW recently developed three CBT lessons for the F-16 and four CBT lessons for the A-10. Both projects involved major upgrades to include substantial hardware and software changes. This paper incorporates the lessons learned from these projects in the following areas:

1) Resource acquisition - personnel expertise, hardware/software requirements, support from upper level managers and subject matter experts (SME), and funding.

2) Project development procedures - team development, design/ programming standards, review/ validation process, and project management.

3) Courseware implementation - courseware distribution and follow-up evaluation.

The paper focuses on meeting the "challenges" encountered during CBT development. It emphasizes recommendations designed to assist other organizations in the pursuit of developing quality CBT.

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Evaluating the Overhead of OSI Stacks in Interoperable DIS Networks

Year: 1993

Authors: Margaret Loper, M. Bassiouni, G. Bulumulle, Ming Chiu

Abstract: OSI (Open Systems Interconnections) communication stacks can be used to interconnect heterogeneous DIS machines and eliminate their incompatibilities. However, the interoperability benefit of OSI stacks could be offset by the computational overhead associated with the complex data transformation process of OSI upper layers. It is feared that an OSI implementation utilizing the transformation process would be too slow to meet the real-time requirements of DIS networks. In this paper, we present the results and conclusions of a detailed performance evaluation study which we have recently conducted to measure the overhead of the OSI transformation process, assess its impact on the delay encountered by DIS PDUs, and evaluate the benefits of using lightweight transfer syntax implementations.

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Reconsidering the Role of ISD

Year: 1993

Authors: Kathy Andrews, James Young, Larry Barks

Abstract: Two decades of military experience with ISD have yielded mixed results. Depending on one's perspective, "doing ISD" may still be considered essential to the development of effective, efficient training systems or it may be regarded as a resource-consuming chore to be avoided to the extent possible. Both perspectives and numerous variations have merit. This paper examines some of the problems associated with ISD models and their applications and discusses potential solutions, including redefining ISD's role. The problems with ISD, the acquisition process, and Navy training in general are not simple, and filling the knowledge gaps, streamlining processes, and producing better-equipped ISD practitioners are only partial solutions. Although the paper focuses on naval aviation, it is applicable to other naval activities and military services.

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The Effects of Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) on Three Tasks in an F-16 Part-Task Simulator

Year: 1993

Authors: Dulch Guckenberger, Kevin Uliano, Norman Lane, Kay Stanney

Abstract:

In this application of ARTT, 24 mission-capable F-16 pilots performed three tasks on a part-task F-16A flight simulator under varying levels of time compression (i.e., 1.0x, 1.5x, 2.0x, and random). All subjects were then tested in a real-time (1.0x) environment. The three tasks under study were on emergency procedure (EP) task, a 1 versus 2 air combat maneuvering task, and a stern conversion or air intercept task. In the EP task, all ARTT pilots performed the EP task with 28% greater accuracy, and were better at dealing with a simultaneous MIG threat, reflected by a six-fold increase in the number of MIG kills compared to a real-time control group. In the ACM task, those pilots trained in the mixed time accelerations were faster to acquire lock, and were faster to kill both MIG threats than the other groups. In the stern conversion task, there were no statistical differences between groups.

These findings are generally consistent with previous findings that show positive effects of task variation (including time variations) during training. Results are discussed in the context of expansion and evolution of ARTT research across multiple simulator platforms and different types of high performance tasks. Also discussed are related research findings that support the benefits of ARTT. Further, a synthesis of mutli discipline research outlining the underlying theoretical basis for ARTT is presented. A proposed model of ARTT based on an analogy to Einstein's theory of special relativity is suggested. Conclusions and an outline of future research directions are presented.

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A Distance Learning Network Control System

Year: 1993

Authors: C. Mckinney, Q. Tran, V. Gallegos, P. Gercken

Abstract:

In the "Extending Classrooms to the Military Workplace" paper submitted last year, we discussed the benefits of distance learning over conventional training programs. We focused on hardware and introduced multimedia and a modular, building block architecture that supports distance learning and Computer Based Training (CBT) on one platform.

This year, we focus on implementation of a new system and we detail the software architecture. We performed a comparative analysis of several distance learning systems currently in operation and designed a new system incorporating the best features discovered during this investigation. This analysis identified a need for distance learning systems to use existing Department of Defense multimedia and networking technologies; provide capabilities for transmitting lessons to individual workstations; and provide features that allow one person to control the entire distance learning network.

This paper describes a generic framework for a distance learning network control system that allows one instructor to control the entire network operation and allows communication to receive sites over satellite, terrestrial, and Local Area Network (LAN) interfaces. The proposed control system supports two-way video, audio, and data transmissions between the broadcast and receive locations, and provides system monitoring capabilities from one central console. We discuss interoperability, open systems, and the functional requirements needed to control a distance learning classroom session. We describe basic software components of the distance learning control system: user interface, LAN control system, satellite control system, terrestrial control system, and receive site control system. We also define interface specifications and performance requirements, and define the relationship between components and subcomponents within the distance learning architecture. Finally, we give examples of how the implementation of the proposed control system can lead to reduced costs in developing, maintaining, and enhancing distance learning systems.

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Concurrent Development: Boon or Bane? An ISD Perspective

Year: 1993

Author: J. Jared

Abstract: This paper focuses on the problems and adaptations required for the instructional systems development process to support the concurrent development of weapon systems and training systems. Government contracts mandate the use of the instructional system development process to develop training systems and also requires the concurrent development of training systems along with the weapon system. The advantages of concurrent development are obvious, such as having a training system delivered at the same time and in the same configuration as the weapon system first article. However, the concurrent development requirement constrains the options available to the training system developer. In the course of developing the analysis procedures for identifying training requirements of a major weapon system, considerable flexibility was required for the analysts and designers. What appeared to be a relatively straight-forward analysis and development approach, in practice, required a significant number of modifications, including procedures and software tools used in the front-end analysis. Specifically, the criteria used to select procedures and analysis models, primarily train/no-train and media selection, were driven by the concurrent development requirements. The program schedule, availability of design data, and analyst capabilities also had to be considered. A major concern for the training device developers is the changes which occur in the weapon system as it evolves. Changes are a critical and costly issue that must be addressed from the beginning. When concurrent development requirements are applied to new weapon system programs, there is a need for a tailored ISD process that sustains analytical integrity and supports the media developers.

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