Found 74 Papers
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Volume 1991
Investigating the Suitability of Speech Recognition for Training Systems

Year: 1991

Authors: Robert Rejent, Catherine Meyn

Abstract: Speech recognition can promote enhanced training procedures and reduce operating costs in training systems. For this reason, the incorporation of speech technology into training systems is becoming more prevalent. Many users of these training systems, however, are unaware of the technical capabilities of speech recognition, and therefore have unrealistic expectations which affect trainer acceptability. To prevent this, it is important for the user and developer of any training system to probe the question: "Is speech recognition appropriate for this training application?" Logicon has integrated speech technology into air traffic control training systems for nearly 15 years. In transitioning from research and development systems to fully operational trainers, experience has been gained regarding this fundamental question. This paper identifies the issues associated with determining the suitability of speech recognition for a particular training application.

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Software Reliability Measurement on the B-2 Aircrew Training Device (ATD)

Year: 1991

Author: Bruce Bedford

Abstract: As the developer of the B-2 ATD, CAE-Link was tasked with building a very complex, software intensive training device. The development of the software was directly influenced by many leading edge technologies and philosophies. The B-2 ATD was the first project at CAE-Link to use Ada, object-oriented design, DOD-STD-2167A, and modern software reliability techniques. Specifically, our customer requested that we address software reliability measurement issues with creativity and innovative techniques. We chose to use McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity Metric and Musa's Basic Execution Time Model. This paper covers the history of the B-2 ATD startup with software reliability measurement, our research in the area, the plan that we employed, and our experiences as the plan was implemented. It also includes data gathered through the use of automated tools, as well as remaining planned activity. Complexity, testability, maintainability, mean time between failures, education, and practical application all impacted our first real experience with software reliability measurement and are included in this paper. As the size and complexity of the software within aircrew training devices continue to grow, we must strive to find methods to measure its reliability. This paper is presented, in the words of software reliability pioneer John Musa, "in order that others may stand on our shoulders, rather than our feet."

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Using Parallel Ada in the Implementation of Simulation and Training Systems

Year: 1991

Authors: Gary Croucher, Don Law

Abstract:

As simulation and training systems become more complex, vendors must rely on the ability of the target system to meet the processing needs of the application. The ever increasing complexity of today's training systems has exceeded the processing capabilities of many single CPU systems. As an alternative, more and more vendors are now considering multi-processor systems.

The Ada language is the logical choice as a software environment for developing these large scale applications. The Ada tasking mechanism can be extended to schedule and distribute tasks over multiple processors. This resulting parallel Ada runtime is capable of executing Ada tasks in parallel, while upholding the rules of the Ada language.

The decision to migrate to a parallel Ada environment is an important one involving many important factors. The intention of this study is to provide the applications developer with an insight into the specific features available in parallel Ada environments, and which features will be most useful throughout the life cycle of his application. With this information, the decision maker should be able to determine if a parallel Ada target environment is worth considering, and which types of parallel environments provide the individual features most essential to the success of his application.

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Empowerment: A Model for Management Accountability

Year: 1991

Author: Graydon Dawson

Abstract: Empowerment is a critical component of a Total Quality Management (TQM) system. Total Quality Management training that has been the most successful include a paradigm-shifting set of experiences for the managers in training which are, in turn, transferred to the job resulting in a highly effective and empowered work force. How many managers in your organization have a working paradigm that is consistent with the principles of TQM? What is your organization doing with and for the other managers who's paradigms are not working? Effective TQM training addresses, head-on, the managerial habits (paradigms) that are counter-productive to effective TQM. An effective model of management accountability will include performance standards - the characteristics of a paradigm in harmony with the principles of TQM, and a measurement tool for measuring whether a manager's paradigm is moving (shifting) towards empowering their work force. Conclusions from one year of tracking and reporting manager's empowerment behaviors, at McDonnell Douglas' C-17 Aircrew Training System Courseware Development, site in Norman, Oklahoma, will be drawn. Successful and unsuccessful empowerment strategies used by Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners and non-winners will also be reviewed.

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Do you See what I See? Instructional Strategies for Tactical Decision Making Teams

Year: 1991

Authors: Janis Cannon-Bowers, Eduardo Salas, Catherine Baker

Abstract: Military tasks often require the coordinated effort of a team of operators for successful execution. In tactical decision making situations, team members must gather, integrate and communicate crucial information in support of decisions where an incorrect response can have catastrophic consequences. Therefore, a viable goal of training for tactical decision making teams must be to improve the quality of teamwork and team coordination. It has been argued recently that the nature of teamwork and coordination behavior can be understood in terms of mental model theory. The notion of "mental models" has been invoked as an explanatory mechanism by those studying skilled performance and system control for a number of years. With respect to training, several researchers have suggested that the goal of instruction should be to foster accurate mental representations of the task. It is contended in this paper that the mental model construct may be particularly useful in developing team training strategies and understanding the nature of teamwork. Specifically, the ability of teams to coordinate activity and adapt to task demands in absence of overt communication opportunities may be hypothesized to be a result of shared mental models of the task and team among members. A rationale for adopting the shared mental model hypothesis is presented, along with the implications of such a position for training design.

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"Embracing the Demons of Training Device Acceptance Testing - the Process Improvement Legacy"

Year: 1991

Author: F. Winter

Abstract:

Under the auspices of Total Quality Management, a small group of Government and industry specialists examined the existing training device acceptance test process for potential improvements. The agreed-to mission of this Air. Force/Industry partnership was to identify and promote implementable approaches to minimize the cost and time required for acceptance testing while ensuring that validated performance supports the operational training requirements. Application of a process improvement model focused on the customers and their requirements, analyzed how work was accomplished, and led to the identification and elimination of several non-value added components in current test practices.

Diverse technical and management approaches were blended into a single improved process known as Simulator Test 2000 (ST 2000). ST 2000 integrates timely, accurate, streamlined test documentation, provides safeguards for increased confidence in contractor verification testing, and improves on-time test milestone performance via an optimum balance of government/contractor specification performance validation procedures. By testing at a functional level in lieu of detailed testing constructs, this customer oriented approach emphasizes operational checks to determine ability to satisfy training objectives and eliminates Government repetition of previously conducted contractor tests. ST 2000 methodologies have been melded into both new and ongoing Air Force training initiatives. Further improvement highlights are those for contractor test performance incentives and commercial-type warranties.

To significantly reduce the number of Government test requirements, the joint Air Force/Industry team has formulated a total of 27 complimentary recommendations surrounding the test process. These improvements are estimated to save in excess of 40 percent of Government test time without compromising test objectives. This paper describes the development of these training device acceptance test improvements and the status/results of their implementation.

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12th I/ITSC-1990: Simnet Fighter Aircraft Application

Year: 1991

Authors: Brian Rogers, Clarence Stephens, Alan Oatman

Abstract: This paper describes the preliminary investigation defining problems of expanding realtime simulation of fighter aircraft to a distributed simulation network. The 12th Interservice/Industry Training Systems Conference was selected as the test site to prove the concept. I/ITSC provided an arena for linking simulators from several manufacturers and laboratories. Six fighter aircraft simulators participated in the network along with a simulated ground control intercept (GCI) station and semi-automated forces providing threat aircraft.

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Training Analysis - Panacea or Placebo? the UK Royal Air Force Experience

Year: 1991

Author: R Prothero

Abstract:

In the mid-80s, the need for structured analyses of training needs prior to military training system acquisition became generally accepted. In 1988, the UK Ministry of Defence endorsed a policy statement that made it mandatory for the RAF to conduct a Training Analysis (TA), or Training Needs Analysis (TNA), for all future equipment projects.

Based on the apparent success of TAs conducted for other Forces, the RAF expected a great deal from the early studies set in hand. These included studies of the training needs for the EFA, the Tornado (Night Attack Variant), the Sea King helicopter, the Hawk and Jetstream visual system requirements, and a CBT project. Two of these TAs were let out to two contractors at the same time so the results could be compared.

Having received the results of all but one of the studies, it is apparent that none actually provides the Staffs with what was expected - a clear statement of the training organisation and strategy needed (where appropriate), and the training devices required to meet the training needs identified.

The reasons for this vary, some of the root causes are complex, but neither industry nor the RAF were at fault - what was lacking was case experience. However, the studies were not totally wasted. This paper will examine each of the TAs to extract the lessons learnt. Based on the Authors experience, it is believed that TAs are better conducted by non-military agencies under most circumstances, and it is essential that contactors have clear and agreed Terms of Reference for the studies. It is also essential for the military to provide full time Subject Matter Experts (SME) for major studies, and for the military training management to maintain a continuous overview of the progress of the study in relation to project assumptions. In addition, regardless of formal contract timescales, it must be accepted that it is better to accept a contract overrun without penalty, or take an iterative approach to the study, and get it right, rather than get it wrong.

Finally, it is expected that new lessons will be learnt from each TA in the future. The RAF expects to commission 6 major weapon system TAs in the early 90s. The scale of investment in synthetic training devices makes it essential that the refining of the TA procedure is a continuing process, and that the necessary feedback mechanisms are established amongst project personnel to enable this to be done.

This Paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the UK Ministry of Defence.

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The Challenges of Simulating a Hovercraft Ocean Environment

Year: 1991

Author: Mark Donner

Abstract: A critical part of the development of a hovercraft simulator is accurately representing an ocean environment. Unlike traditional aircraft simulators, the dynamics of a hovercraft are driven by the forces produced by the sea medium in an ocean environment. The importance of correctly depicting such ocean entities as a sea state, a plunging surf, and a support ship wake becomes evident when one considers that the methods used in modeling these environments directly affect the judgment and actions of the crew. Not only must the details of these ocean entities be readily identifiable, but their dynamics must accurately represent the real world as perceived by the crew. This was accomplished on the Landing Craft, Air Cushion Full Mission Trainer (LCAC FMT) which has the capability of displaying realistic ocean environments. The objective of this paper is to present how sea states 0 to 4, a dynamic surf, and a support ship dynamic wake were modeled and how some of the limitations of these models were overcome. By enhancing the characteristics of these models and developing creative methods of implementation, Hughes Training, Incorporated, is meeting the Navy's need to provide a realistic ocean training environment. This paper discusses some of the design considerations required to provide a real-world ocean environment as perceived by the users of the Landing Craft, Air Cushion Full Mission Trainer.

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Tactics as Decision Making: Issues in Tactical Training Development

Year: 1991

Authors: Jerome Bresee, Michael Naber

Abstract:

Military training system designs are typically optimized for the demonstration and practice of operational procedures, and seldom focus specifically on tactical decision making. The normal approach for training systems design consistently suggests the maximum use of physical fidelity, while leaving the user to decide how to make use of that fidelity. This is usually done by training the performance of tactical procedures in the environment that was used for the training of operating procedures.

This paper is based on the premise that training in tactical decision making has certain fundamental differences from procedural training, and therefore different requirements for training strategies and media. The paper offers some observations on the tasks that make up tactical decision making behavior, and identifies some related training requirements. A set of guidelines for implementing these requirements is offered, followed by a description of some suggested training environments.

Positions advanced in the paper are supported by experience gained through the development of tactical instruction and tactics-oriented training devices in naval submarine, surface and air warfare.

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