Found 58 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1984
Computer Aided Authoring of Procedural Training Documents

Year: 1984

Authors: Richard Braby, J. Kincaid, Paul Scott

Abstract: This paper describes the design and computer production of highly illustrated training materials to teach complex operating procedures. Procedure training is the most common type of military training and is widely perceived as needing improvement. The training materials described in this paper, and the computer routines used to create them, have been successfully field-tested in teaching selected operating procedures of the SH-3D/H aircraft. A typical page is highly illustrated and follows a strict format, including an overview of the equipment, and pictorial close-ups for action and response. Narrative description is kept to a minimum. Computer routines can control vocabulary by checking each word against carefully developed lists (including technical words, abbreviations and nomenclature). In addition to the book, the procedural training package includes a detailed line drawing or photograph of the equipment's control panel (paper mock-up); students continually refer to the paper mock-up during their learning. Formats and word lists are now incorporated into draft specifications for the Naval Technical Information Presentation Program, an automated process to produce technical information for new Navy systems.

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User Reprogrammability in EW Trainers

Year: 1984

Author: Rollin Olson

Abstract: There is a general trend toward user reprogrammability in EW equipment, as exemplified by the ARL-74 Radar Warning Receive and ALQ-165 ASPJ jammer. EW trainers are likewise moving toward greater reprogrammability by the user. EW trainers have large data bases for simulated threats and ownship equipment. Reprogramming enables the user to keep the trainer current with updated threat data and with modified versions of EW equipment employed in the trainer. EW trainers are reprogrammed by changing input data. Data can be performance parameters or control data that trigger various functions in the trainer software. Off-line data editors ease the task of changing data. A number of problems remain in the generation and use of reprogramming facilities. The first is the definition of user requirements. Second, the user must collect and digest data to make updates. Finally, the user must contend with configuration control problems if each user site can reprogram the trainers separately.

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Implementation of a Distributed Bus Architecture on a Trainer System

Year: 1984

Authors: Brian Crouch, Robert Severino

Abstract: Trainers with a centralized architecture have inherent limitations on expandability, reconfigurability and ease of integration. The motivation for this project stems from the inability of the centralized architecture to address the complexity of individual, subteam, and team communication requirements for future trainers. With recent advances in commercial Implementations of local area network technologies, trainer systems can be designed to overcome these limitations and offer other advantages. This paper discloses the research, selection, integration and demonstration of a distributed bus architecture for trainer systems. First in the paper, an analysis of top-level trainer system requirements is given from which specific bus performance characteristics are derived. An in-depth discussion of the network selection process includes an explanation of the network selection criteria along with the specific characteristics of several comparable local area networks. Next, a description is given of the implementation of a commercial fiber optic ETHERNET network. The upper layers of network protocol software are presented. This bus system was demonstrated as a validation of research findings. Data throughput rates, derived from both theoretical predictions and laboratory measurements, are disclosed for typical trainer configurations. A performance model written in BASIC, which allows predictions of the bus performance based upon user input of trainer configuration, is described and will be distributed to interested parties.

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The Air Combat Simulator (ACS) : A Real Tactical Training Tool

Year: 1984

Author: M. Picard

Abstract: The training requirements and the project schedule for the ACS (Air Combat Simulator) will be presented first. Then, after a brief description of the technical principles and components used in the simulator, will follow a more detailed presentation of the equipment, emphasizing the system features: high realism, versatility, variety of operational conditions, powerful and easy-to-use instructor's facilities, maintainability, flexibility for future modifications. Finally, last point to be presented will consist of comments about the visual environment generation system: general organization, horizon projector, target projector, computer generated imagery and missile projector. The simulator described herein is to be delivered to the French Air Force in the last few days of 1984.

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Software Quality Assurance for Aircrew Training Devices

Year: 1984

Authors: Thomas Ehrhorn, Lawrence Eamigh

Abstract: Aircrew training devices have evolved from relatively simple analog devices to extremely complex multi-station digital simulators. Software maintenance of these new devices requires an effective quality assurance (QA) program-one that is active from the start of a project through its completion-to insure that changes are done correctly and efficiently. Quality control, which concerns itself only with final results rather than methods, is inadequate. Under the quality assurance approach, each project is broken down into five phases, each ending with a quality assurance phase review. In each phase the quality assurance technician contributes a great deal to the final success of the project while still insuring that standards are met. This approach, and only this approach, can insure future supportability and training effectiveness.

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A Sew Approach for Improved Training Device Management, Development, and Life Cycle Support Using Defense Data Network

Year: 1984

Authors: Gene Russell, Barbara Pemberton

Abstract: A new and innovative approach for improved training device management, development, and life cycle support has become feasible with the advent of the Defense Data Network (DDN). This approach utilizes the DDN and training device computer hardware/software to provide rapid information retrieval among Government and contractor facilities at different geographic locations. Implementation of this concept provides improved management/ technical information availability for training device development and support. Improved visibility of technical progress will result in increased productivity of both Government and contractor personnel, Reduced trainer development risks, maintainment of contract schedule, and resultant cost reductions are expected.

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Dodging the Trees and Bushes: Current NOE Simulation

Year: 1984

Authors: B. Voorhies, Michael Cosman

Abstract:

Many previous rotorcraft nap-of-earth visual simulators were designed by the "seat of the pants" method: infant technologies mated with "best guess" estimates of what a visual simulation scene should contain. Experience with the successes and weaknesses of these earlier systems (many still in valuable active use) provided the right questions, and recent empirical quantitative studies have offered first and second generation answers. Unfortunately, the technology's solutions have too often been, "This is as good as we can do, and so we'll prove it's good enough." It is now possible to approach the problem from the researchers point of view. Maturing hardware and emerging software technologies have made possible the design of a system that provides the content demanded by the research, not just to marginal but to desirable levels of performance.

The nap-of-earth visual simulation project had as a practical objective tailoring a visual data base designed for rotorcraft to the requirements of a comprehensive research study. The projected performance envelope was designed to be nap-of-earth and contour flying from five feet up and from hover to 100 knots. Empirical issues to be addressed in the implementation included: mix of 2D and 3D cueing, and total cue densities to provide optimum visual flow; elimination or minimization of negative cueing; value of terrain fidelity versus dense generic scene content; maximization of detail in the aircraft performance envelope; and scene reality versus training value. Other perceived deficiencies of some earlier systems that are addressed by this system are multiple, properly occulting, dynamic ground and air threats, and special weapons effects (cannon, rockets, FLIR, etc.) In addition, consideration was given in the structuring of the data base to provide maximum flexibility as new research and experience dictate modifications. What has evolved is a good example of visual flight simulation specifically designed for the nap-of-earth regime.

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Performance Specifications for Flight Simulator Procurement Contracting

Year: 1984

Author: James Dees

Abstract: Contracting for flight simulators has some unique problems and opportunities. Because the flight simulator design must lag the design of the aircraft, scheduling flight simulator production to coincide with the initial aircraft production is very difficult. At the same time, the government's sophstication in training effectiveness and reliability measurement offers an opportunity to greatly increase the responsiveness of industry "by allowing industry a greater role in program definition. This would be achieved by shifting the standard of contract compliance from hardware specifications to performance specifications.

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Some Future Prospects for Simulator Users

Year: 1984

Author: Edward Boothe

Abstract: The FAA Advanced Simulator Plan, directed primarily to the air carrier industry, has been a stimulus to the advancement of simulator technology and has resulted in significant benefit to simulator users. General aviation simulation, however, is expected to be the growth area. General aviation users, primarily corporate, are being offered the benefits of advanced simulation through new training centers which are concentrating on simulators capable of nearly all FAA airman certification credits. Also, the FAA is reevaluating the use of simulators and training devices for possible expanded airman certification credit. Helicopter simulator users currently get no credit since FAA procedures are not yet available for qualification of helicopter simulators. Helicopter simulator qualification guidance when completed will allow significant airman certification productivity from helicopter simulators.

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Visual System of the F/A-18 Weapons Tactics Trainer

Year: 1984

Author: Eric Haseltine

Abstract:

Limitations in wide angle image generation and display technology historically have prevented dome simulators from portraying all of the visual cues required to train Air Combat Maneuvers (ACM). Dome simulators typically displayed trainee aircraft attitude but could not display other cues, such as altitude, position, translational velocity and vertical velocity, needed to prevent inadvertent collisions with the terrain. This paper will describe advanced Computer Image Generation (CIG) and wide angle projection techniques used in Device 2E7, the F/A-18 Weapons Tactics Trainer, to overcome these limitations.

The approach to be described achieves an unrestricted 360° field-of-view CIG scene that provides all of the sky/earth and target cues needed for ACM training. This approach features high-speed calligraphic image generators incorporating dome image predistortion algorithms to produce solid color sky/earth scenes and a CT-5 CIG to generate realistic air targets. The device 2E7 visual simulation also includes surface targets, and permits training in a wide range of air-to-ground weapons tasks in addition to the basic ACM capability. Moreover, the visual system may be upgraded in a straightforward manner to achieve greater air-to-ground and air-to-air capabilities, in order to support fully the broad mission of the F/A-18.

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