Found 66 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1981
Trinoscope Color Displays for Simulation

Year: 1981

Authors: Richard Holmes, F. Albers

Abstract: The resolution capabilities of computer image generators (CIG) used for simulation and training have advanced to the degree that they exceed the capabilities of existing shadow mask, direct view color TV displays and color TV projectors. One solution to this problem is the modern day implementation of a trinoscope color display that uses the optical merging of three high resolution monochrome cathode ray tubes-red, green, blue color phosphors, respectively-to produce a full color image. Such systems are particularly suitable for telescopes and periscopes needed in tank or submarine simulations where the color-combining optics can be integrated into the simulated sight optics. This paper describes the technical advances required to assure maximum resolution and, more importantly, superior color convergence (i.e., the capability to make the three CRT images fall exactly on top of each other so that the resulting full color image is produced without undesirable color fringing).

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Techniques for Averting Problems in Developing Trainer System Software

Year: 1981

Author: Carole Kuruma

Abstract: Short schedules and changing requirements are common problems encountered when software is being developed for training systems. This paper explores techniques used by Technology Service Corporation (TSC) to overcome or avert such problems while developing the B-52 OAS Part Task Trainer for the Training Services Division, Keesler Air Force Base. Techniques for dealing with limited resources (time and budget) include carefully exploring, and assigning priorities to, system capabilities to determine the more important requirements; and employing a top-down approach. Planning for changing requirements calls for identifying capabilities that may change; constructing a well-documented software design with application-oriented modularity; and scheduling a design freeze, with late requirement changes incorporated after completion. The paper presents step-by-step descriptions of each technique and provides examples relating directly to the part task trainer.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
An Indirect-Fire Terminal Effects Simulator

Year: 1981

Authors: Robert Michelson, Frank Williamson, Captain Pinnell

Abstract: This paper describes the concept development and feasibility demonstration of a man-safe cueing system for the impact of indirect fire in a simulated battlefield environment. This system provides a safe, cost-effective method for including mortar and artillery into the battlefield training/evaluation scenario for both mounted and dismounted players. This cueing system is based on a lightweight projectile having a very low impact energy and carrying a flash/bang/smoke generator. This projectile is launched from a low pressure pneumatic device that is capable of projecting the cue to ranges of 200 to 300 meters using a simple constant-mass, constant-drag projectile. A manually controlled launcher was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the cueing concept. A remote controlled, multiple shot launching device (providing coverage of a one kilometer diameter circle) is well within current technology. The soft-nose projectile is designed to have a terminal energy similar to that experienced during the impact of a served tennis ball. The flash, acoustic and smoke cues are tailored for player safety.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Target TV Projector with Dynamic Raster Shaping for Use in Dome Simulators

Year: 1981

Author: Richard Holmes

Abstract:

Large dome simulators for air-to-air and air-to-ground aircraft weapons tactics trainers are coming into prominence. In such devices, the training objective is to improve pilot proficiency and coordination by allowing the pilot to train in the use of weapons in realistic operational and threat environments. Typically, the pilot will fight against a TV projected image that is slewed across the field of view. Sometimes neither the pilot's eyes nor the TV projector lens is located at the center of the dome screen. From geometrical considerations, a standard rectangular or square TV image looks distorted to the pilot. The degree and shape of the distortion changes with the shift in location of the "target" on the screen relative to the pilot as it is slewed either by servo pointing the entire projector or by optical means.

This paper describes the design and development of a TV projector that is capable of predistorting the TV raster such that from the pilot's viewpoint the image will look rectilinear at all times. This dynamic raster shaping can be updated at the TV field rate (typically 60 times per second) so that there is no perceptible jumpiness in the image as the shape is varied. In addition, the raster can be zoomed to create the appearance of distance change to the target and rotated to compensate the effects caused by the mirror steering of the target image across the dome.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
An Automated Gunner Performance Evaluator

Year: 1981

Authors: Melvin Phillips, Curtis Rodden

Abstract: The training of gunners for man-portable tactical missile systems (such as Dragon) currently requires the gunner to track a vehicle-mounted target and field IR source beacon. This means that large areas are required, approximating tactical target ranges. These space/facility requirements limit training opportunities. To increase opportunities while eliminating (or reducing) space requirements, a simulation device is required that displays battlefield scenario images in the gunner's sight. Currently, simulator technology can optically generate simulated battlefield scenes via a computer controlled display screen. However, the high cost and complexity of such a system is prohibitive when used in a tactical training scenario. This paper describes a low-cost, microprocessor-based training device to overcome these drawbacks. The major component of the system is a high resolution graphic display sub-system that generates images via multiple gray-level video signals displayed on a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). The image data is stored in memory and accessed via software. Gunner tracking movements are measured and used to modify the position of the displayed image, thus realistically simulating tactical scenes. The gunner's performance is evaluated by determining tracking errors relative to target line-of-sight (LOS) and comparing these errors to established error limits. Since the system will be small and relatively inexpensive, it will readily lend itself to classroom or field training.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Competitive Contracting of Non-Personal Support Services for Flight Simulators

Year: 1981

Authors: Bruce Dembroski, Jacques Gansler

Abstract: This paper describes a useful management tool for helping program managers determine the cost-effectiveness of competing maintenance, engineering support, and other types of service contracts. The underlying analytical framework is based upon cost improvement (learning) curve theory and incorporates the effects of competition on this process. Supporting data are discussed. The original research was performed by the authors at The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) for the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's (AFHRL) Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training (ASPT), Williams AFB, but is applicable to other simulator maintenance and support contracts where the work is of a repetitive, technical, and somewhat complex nature.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Mid-Range Trainers: Concept and Design As Applied to the B-52 OAS/CMC Part Task Trainer

Year: 1981

Authors: Joseph Stein, Michael Shannon, Carole Kuruma

Abstract: Mid-range trainers are designed to provide useful training at significantly lower cost and development time than those for full-capability (full-scale) trainers. Mid-range trainers are appropriate for use prior to development of full-scale trainers and as supplements to full-scale trainers. With a mid-range trainer, trainees may, for example, practice operational procedures, become familiar with system control locations and reaction times, and learn to recognize and handle system faults. This paper describes the B-52 OAS/CMC Part Task Trainer, detailing its function as both a conversion trainer to provide the highest level of simulated training while the full-range trainer is being developed, and as a "lead in" trainer before the student moves to the full-range device. Capabilities of the Part Task Trainer are explained. Cost effective aspects of dual use are discussed. Design features to provide lower initial cost and flexibility for future modification and expansion, use of minicomputers, off-the-shelf components, and modular structure are detailed.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Phantom Range - An EW Training System

Year: 1981

Author: Morton Eldridge

Abstract: Confronting NATO tactical air is a spectrum of Warsaw Pact defenses including SAMs, AAA, and airborne interceptors plus jamming of communications, fire control radars, and navigation equipment. Aircrews faced with this array, trying to perform their primary mission, must be trained to cope with the total anticipated task-loading and at the same time become neither casualties nor disoriented such that they fail to achieve their mission objective. Current training on large EW ranges is considered inadequate due to the limited accessibility and the infrequency with which aircrews can experience such training. The Phantom Range, an onboard, computer-generated threat simulator, can be programmed to provide threats at given geographic locations, independent of ground emitters, with appropriate envelopes modified by actual existing terrain. It allows the aircrew to defeat the threat by exercising proper procedures, or be "killed" if their actions are inappropriate. The whole scenario is recorded for ground debriefing.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Visual Display Resolution and Contrast Requirements for Air Combat Simulation: An Application of Computer Modeling

Year: 1981

Authors: Alfred Lee, Ronald Hughes

Abstract: A study on the effects of target resolution and contrast in air combat engagements was conducted to determine the potential impact of visual display characteristics on the effectiveness of air combat simulation training. A large-scale computer model of air combat engagements was used to investigate the effects of 2 and 4 arc min. of target resolution and target/background contrast ratios of 0.5 and 9.0. The study results are discussed in the context of the benefits of enhanced visual display characteristics in practicing the skills required in air combat.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
A Comparative Analysis of Three Approaches to the Man-Machine Interface Problem at the Flight Simulator Instructor/Operator Station

Year: 1981

Author: Joseph Dickman

Abstract: This paper analyzes the principles of instructor/operator station (IOS) design employed in three flight simulators recently produced by the same company, Sperry Systems Management - SECOR. The analysis brings out major differences among the three; comments on the reasons for the various approaches selected; examines the experience of users of each trainer, to the extent that data is available; and draws conclusions regarding the comparative merits of each approach. In addition, it discusses the problem of objectively evaluating the efficiency of IOS designs in general.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login