Found 158 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 2006
Using Computational Fluid Dynamics for Model Development and Simulator Validation

Year: 2006

Authors: Thomas Z. Moore, Christopher J. Freitas, Ryan M. Keedy, J. Brian Fisher

Abstract:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software has evolved over the past 30 years to a level of capability and accuracy sufficient to support the design and analysis of complex systems. In the aerospace community, CFD tools are routinely used in the design of aircraft; and in some instances, they are used to supplement or reduce wind tunnel testing of prototype designs. In fact, the application of CFD today has revolutionized the process of aerodynamic design, joining the wind tunnel and flight tests as primary tools of the trade. The successful integration of CFD into aerodynamic design suggests that CFD simulations could also be used to develop accurate data sets to support the design, development and validation of training systems. A significant cost savings in training system development may also be realized through the use of CFD simulations rather than using flight or wind tunnel tests.

This technique is particularly attractive when no flight test data is available or when it becomes necessary to supplement existing flight test data. The KC-135 Boom Operator Weapon Systems Trainer (BOWST), currently being developed as a joint effort between the United States Air Force and Southwest Research Institute, is one such case where adequate flight test data does not exist. As reported in this paper, CFD analysis data was used in the design and development of BOWST flight models and provided the basis for simulator model validation. In addition, CFD results for the tanker boom in free flight were compared with available test data and found to be in good agreement. The CFD approach discussed in this paper can be extended to other training systems where flight test data is also lacking. This paper discusses a new approach to simulator development and specifically the use of the OVERFLOW 2 code in the development and validation of the BOWST system.

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Global Elevation Models for Modeling and Simulation

Year: 2006

Author: George E. Lukes

Abstract:

Continuing advances in remote sensing from space, digital cartography, computer processing, computer graphics, mass data storage and high bandwidth networks have led to dramatic increases in the generation, dissemination and utilization of digital global terrain and/or bathymetric data sets.

Such data sets can be used to provide a global digital elevation model for modeling and simulation applications. For example, the Joint Experimentation Federation in use at the U.S. Joint Forces Command relies on a low-resolution, world-wide synthetic environment to provide the spatial context for entity-level distributed simulation experiments that typically focus on much higher resolution areas of interest (e.g., cities). Even in the extreme case of modeling joint urban operations, a global context provides the appropriate environment in which to model airborne and seaborne logistics, long-range air operations, naval operations including anti-submarine warfare, space surveillance and communications.

As these global data sets migrate from their original producers and traditional consumers, both the lineage and an appreciation for the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the data are often obscure to the new user. This paper provides an overview of major Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM): terrain data sets including DTED0, GTOPO30, GLOBE, ACE, SRTM30 and GETASSE30; bathymetric data sets such as Smith and Sandwell and DBDBV; and integrated terrain and bathymetric data sets including ETOPO5, TerrainBase, Smith and Sandwell, ETOPO2, DBDBV, GEBCO, SRTM_Plus, and CleanTOPO2. Knowledge of the original data sources and potential limitations are emphasized. The paper concludes with recommendations for the selection and use of terrain and bathymetric data in generating global synthetic environments for modeling and simulation.

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User Interface Lessons Learned from Distributed Simulations

Year: 2006

Authors: Noah Evens, Brooke Whiteford, Geoff Frank, Rob Hubal

Abstract:

The Army is pursuing distance learning strategies to meet Soldiers' lifelong learning needs. One cost-effective approach to providing Soldiers with learning by doing is to develop and distribute simulation training systems. The U.S. Army Signal Center & FT Gordon is leading the implementation of this approach through a series of distributed simulations accessible via its University of Information Technology (UIT) portal.

This paper reports on the many user interface lessons learned from development of a series of distributed simulation systems, mostly but not solely for the Signal Center, developed over the past six years, as well as lessons already learned from several simulation systems currently being developed. These systems are designed to meet contractual requirements that they be downloadable and usable by Soldiers anywhere in the world with an AKO connection within 15 minutes, but able to run in standalone mode.

The paper describes a host of issues dealing with visualization and interactivity, context and usability, navigation and tool use, and policy and technology. The lessons learned include observations, solutions, and suggestions to h ese issues. The paper provides guidelines for future simulation systems building on a model that considers task affordances and demands, user characteristics, and the nature of the domain.

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Network Centric Warfare Requirements - A Live Collective Training Perspective

Year: 2006

Authors: Paul Dumanoir, Rich Keller, Wayne Koenig

Abstract: Meeting Network Ready Key Performance Parameter (NR KPP) requirements for DoD systems is the key to enabling effective Network Centric Warfare (NCW). The power of NCW is derived from the effective linking geographically or hierarchically dispersed knowledgeable entities that enable them to share information and collaborate to develop shared awareness, and to achieve a degree of self-synchronization. The net result is increased combat power that can be generated by a network-centric force. Net Ready KPP is about performance parameters for exploiting information to maximize combat power by bringing more of our available information and war fighting assets to bear both effectively and efficiently, and developing collaborative working environments for commanders and soldiers to make it easier to develop common perceptions of the situation and achieve (self-) coordinated responses to situations. For training systems, Net Ready KPP applications should focus on monitoring the Soldier networks to evaluate shared awareness, self synchronization, collaboration, and NCW. This paper describes perspectives and concepts of how the Net Ready KPP should be addressed for Live Training systems by enabling the training system to manipulate the "combat" situation to evaluate Soldiers and their systems. The paper describes different types of Global Information Grid (GIG) interoperability required to support "Live" training and simulation as well as Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) training events. The paper also discusses interoperability concepts from a System of System (SoS) perspective.

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SCO Sighs: Why ADL Won’t Say How Big SCOs Should Be

Year: 2006

Authors: Eric J Roberts, William H Blackmon

Abstract: The Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative has not directly addressed the question of how big a sharable content object should be. This paper explains why that position has been taken, points out the undesirable consequences of dictating sharable content object (SCO) size, and offers an example of a useful SCO with no visible subject-matter content. Additionally, the paper presents a hierarchy of re-use possibilities and describes their implications for the conduct of instruction, the ADL-Registry, and the acquisitions procedures one might follow when contracting for new instructional materials .

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Virtual Reality Simulation for Multicasualty Triage Training

Year: 2006

Authors: Paul Kizakevich, Robert Furberg, Rob Hubal, Geoff Frank

Abstract:

Multicasualty triage, establishing the priority of care among casualties in disaster management, is generally practiced using constructive tabletop or live exercises. Live exercises require scheduling of medical providers, trained actors, and frequently focus on organizational and logistical issues, with little practice of medical response. Actual disasters, such as explosions, hurricanes, or toxic exposures, occur so rarely that there is little opportunity for gaining experience during real events.

The triage simulation described in this paper is the result of over a decade of development of virtual reality systems for medical care training, including trauma, bioterrorism, and chemical agent casualties. These simulators present scenarios comprising a scene and one or more virtual patients. Each casualty has its own injuries, physiological simulation, and signs and symptoms that change with the evolving condition. Animations such as vomiting, tearing, coughing, seizure, and convulsions relate to physiological status and interventions. The caregiver can navigate the scene, assess and converse with the patient, monitor diagnostic data, and apply medical devices, medications, and other interventions. Scenarios were developed for training military physicians how to perform effective multicasualty triage and practice initial care of casualties consistent with improvised explosive device (IED) injuries. These scenarios provide an evolving medical situation with graphically intense casualties including amputations, penetrations, massive burns, chest wounds, and blunt trauma. Child and adult civilian casualties are embedded with the military casualties to provide an engaging urban disaster scenario. Caregivers assign the virtual casualties a triage priority and administer immediate care as indicated. A learning module guides the user through standardized protocols, and interactions are recorded for review, along with pertinent physiological and behavioral data. This triage simulator has been used at Fort Campbell and Fort Drum for pre-deployment training of Army medical staff, and at Fort Bucca, Iraq for sustainment training. User surveys have been requested from medical personnel for usability and face value comments. Available summary results will be presented.

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Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

Year: 2006

Authors: David Gertman, Steven Novack, Julie Marble

Abstract: Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede's (1991) cultural factors and Davis' (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

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Distributed Simulation in the 21st Century

Year: 2006

Author: Frank Hill

Abstract:

While higher fidelity has been introduced in individual simulators, the ability of those simulators to interact in a realistic manner with other simulators in a distributed exercise has been significantly limited. The Simulation Inter-operability Standards Organization (SISO) over the last two years has been working with government and military organizations and defense contractors, to identify and correct simulated information exchange and interaction deficiencies. The distributed simulation community, whether using HLA or the DIS protocol, needs to be aware of the changes which are expected to be ready for balloting shortly after the 2006 I/ITSEC Conference. If they have not been actively involved in the standards update process, this paper will make them aware of this effort and afford them an opportunity to review the proposed changes prior to final balloting.

Changes to standards are being made related to simulated data distribution, interactions and rules to ensure interop-erability and to support higher fidelity in the following major areas: visualization including interactions and animation support; ability to convey more realistic bomb damage to vehicles, humans, buildings and the terrain; information operations including conveying damage to communication nodes; directed energy engagements including real-time feedback during the engagement; support for submunitions and smart weapons delivery; radio simulation upgrades including support for frequency hopping radios; better electromagnetic emissions data; and more realistic human representation and interactions with each other, vehicles and buildings. New rules and methods to reduce bandwidth usage have also been introduced. Finally, new options to help deal with multi-resolution issues where one simulation may not have the fidelity to realistically interact with another simulation have been developed. The proposed changes will have a profound affect on distributed simulation in the coming years.

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Assessing Training Transformation: Moving from Concept to Reality

Year: 2006

Authors: Annie Patenaude, Fred Hartman

Abstract:

With the completion in 2005 of the first Block Assessment of Training Transformation (T2), we can point to a successful beginning on the road to transforming joint training - and the larger goal of functioning as a key enabler for force transformation in DoD. The paper will present the assessment process and results, which are not only valuable for the impact on management of joint training but describe a methodology for devising policy metrics.

The Joint Assessment and Enabling Capability (JAEC) in OSD assembled a team of operations research analysts and training experts that developed four areas of assessment: (1) evaluation of program accomplishments against goals in the T2 Implementation Plan; (2) review of key initiatives that the T2 components have undertaken; (3) feedback from stakeholders; and (4) evaluation against independent assessment metrics identified by the study team.

The Block Assessment process and results illuminated the path for future assessments by defining program and management recommendations. The paper will describe our process for metric development, data gathering, and analysis. The final section will describe how we implemented one of the recommendations from the assessment: a persistent assessment framework to synchronize assessment activities at T2-related organizations, including identifying the metrics and training events being assessed.

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Challenges Future TES Face With Position/Location And Implementing Geometric Pairing

Year: 2006

Authors: George Burmester, Jim Grosse

Abstract:

As the Army develops its next generation Tactical Engagement Simulations (TES) and replaces its existing laser based systems, many new technologies will be employed to meet the requirements. Future TES programs for the U.S. Army will provide a Live, precision, combined arms Force-On-Force (FOF) and Force-On-Target (FOT) training and testing capability using electronic bullets and RF communications for geometric pairing. The Army's Future TES must exploit recent advances in data processing, navigation, networking, interoperability, position location, weapons' orientation and M&S technologies to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of RTCA and automated data collection.

One of many challenges to be encountered by the Army's Future TES programs is that of obtaining highly accurate Position/Location in the use and implementation of Geometric Pairing (Geopairing). An accurate position/location tracking system for Combat Training Centers (CTCs) and other training ranges is a long-standing need of the United States Army. Such a system should be able to locate participants in training exercises, identify all players individually, and track them inside of buildings and on the battlefield with very low latency and to a high degree of accuracy. A system meeting all these requirements has yet to be developed and deployed. Technologies to meet the needs are only now being refined and beginning to appear in commercially available products. The Army is using GPS-based systems in sites around the world, but these do not address the need for tracking indoors and the high precision position location required for use in Geopairing. Geopairing is the capability where the fire event adjudication is resolved through knowledge of the positions and orientations of the shooter, the potential target(s), and the pointing vector of the weapon. In order to properly pair shooters with targets, each party's location must be known with high precision, thus a critical piece for Geopairing.

This paper seeks to define potential issues/problems with Position/Location and the implementation of Geopairing and how they relate to the Army's Future TES programs. This paper will also seek to suggest possible solutions to those challenges and how they could be implemented in helping Future TES programs address the issues of accurate Position/Location and Geopairing.

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