Found 167 Papers
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Volume 2002
Similarities and Differences in the Implementation of Distributed Mission Training

Year: 2002

Authors: Peter Crane, Barry Tomlinson, Jeffery Bell

Abstract:

In November 2001, engineers and researchers from the US Air Force Research Laboratory, in Arizona, the Defence and Civil Institute for Environmental Medicine in Toronto, Canada, and from the UK Ministry of Defence, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory and QinetiQ Ltd, in Bedford, UK conducted a coalition, Distributed Mission Training (DMT) research event. This international exercise supported development of alternative implementations and applications of DMT by the cooperating, partner nations. The UK approach focuses on mission planning and coordination with only one mission engagement per day supported by a team of subject matter experts. The US has focused on tactical execution by providing a large number of limited engagements with few supporting personnel required. In the US, training events are conducted at individual operational units, which now have four-ship mission training centers. The majority of training activities are conducted at these mission training centers with emphasis on four vs many, beyond visual range air-to-air engagements. The US - Canada - UK coalition DMT exercise was based on two previous, RAF combined air operation exercises that focused on training coordinated actions of air-to-air, air-to-surface, and command and control entities. The differences between US and UK implementation and application of DMT provide an ideal opportunity to examine alternative approaches for using similar training technology to fulfill different training objectives and current training methodology.

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Sensor Platform Optimization And Simulation For Surveillance Of Large Scale Terrains

Year: 2002

Authors: Cagatay Undeger, Murat Balci, Sertan Girgin, Volkan Koc, Faruk Polat, Sukru Bilir, Ziya Ipekkan

Abstract: Surveillance of large terrains using limited sensor capabilities is a challenging task in many military applications. In this paper, we present a new method to determine the number, type and location of sensor platform systems to effectively cover a large terrain, which is composed of areas of varying importance. A sensor platform system is an integrated system that consists of a platform (human, jeep, aircraft, etc.) and one or more sensors (day-tv, infra-red, radar, etc.) integrated to that platform. The objective in the optimization is twofold: first, determine locations of a given set of sensor platform systems in order to effectively cover areas in accordance with importance. Second, determine the number, type and locations of sensor platform systems to effectively cover the terrain. We developed a genetic algorithm to solve this optimization problem. In the optimization, user may specify a budget and the tool may be run to determine the number, type and locations of the sensor platform systems within this budget to maximize effective coverage as much as possible. Alternatively the tool may be run to guarantee a predefined effectiveness measure concerning coverage, minimizing total cost of sensor platform systems. In order to simulate optical sensors and radars, we developed a generic probabilistic sensor model, which is based on line-of sight and ray tracing. This stochastic modeling allows us to simulate detection, recognition and identification capabilities of different types of sensors on high-resolution terrains. The next part of that study is a distributed human in the loop simulation, which is developed to demonstrate the usage of the sensor platforms under the control of a tactical level control center. To perform the simulation, a tactical command center, an HLA compliant physical radar simulator, a number of sensor platform consoles and semi-automated agents are developed.

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The Power Of Five: Interaction Strategies That Work

Year: 2002

Author: Dr. Pam Northrup

Abstract:

Interaction can be defined in many ways. Most simply stated interaction is engagement in learning. It is agreed that interaction must be designed into an instructional program and that it is an important variable for online learning success. Berge (1999) suggests that interaction is important to learner satisfaction and that it assists in maintaining student persistence in courses. With retention in online learning programs being as low as 50% in some cases and course completion rates in traditional courses at 10-20 percentage points higher than in online courses (Carr, 2000), learner satisfaction is a key variable. With interaction being a component of overall student satisfaction, it should be considered when trying to increase retention in online courses. However, from the online learners point of view, too much interaction may be perceived as busywork and lead to frustration, boredom, and overload (Berge, 1999); while too little interaction may result in student isolation. Both are considered frustrating and a balance has to be found.

This presentation will identify five types of student interactions perceived to be important for online learning. The Power of Five interaction strategies include: (1) content interaction, (2) social interaction, (3) collaboration and conversation, (4) self-directedness, and (5) support. Using data collected from the OnLine Learning Interaction Inventory (OLLII) (Northrup, 2001), this presentation will include guidelines that are important to building an overall community of learners in an online environment.

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Behaviors that Emerge from Emotion and Cognition: A First Evaluation

Year: 2002

Authors: Amy E. Henninger, Randolph M. Jones, Eric Chown

Abstract:

This paper presents an initial evaluation of an emotions model developed for a sophisticated synthetic forces model. Sponsored by ARI, the objective of this research is to make the decision-making process of complex agents less predictable and more realistic, by incorporating emotional factors that affect humans. To this end, we have adopted an approach that promotes the emergence of behavior as a result of complex interactions between factors affecting emotions, integrated in a connectionist-style model, and factors affecting decision making, represented in a symbolic model.

This paper explains how we used the concept of emerging behaviors to test our framework. This includes a description of the behaviors we used in our prototype, the design of our experiments, a representative set of behavior patterns that emerged as a result of exercising our model over the design space, and our project's lessons learned.

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Can We Simulate and Differentiate?

Year: 2002

Author: Lieutenant Colonel Nigel P. Gallier

Abstract:

The application of simulation technology is enabling a necessary transformation of military training. The requirement to prepare soldiers for digitization, homeland defence, and full spectrum rapid effects warfare calls for more effective training which is tailored, deployable and available. The modelling & simulation profession has responded to this call for transformed and effective training. We as an army can now simulate and train, and Force Readiness is the beneficiary.

Military training in its broadest sense encompasses three facets, namely education, development and training. The importance of the education of the individual in the principles of future warfare is increasing because the time available for development & training in specific aspects of warfare before operational deployments is decreasing. A key aspect of education is differentiation. Differentiation is the planned process of intervention to maximize potential based on individual needs. It acknowledges that individuals have differing learning needs. It is the process by which objectives, teaching strategies, assessment methods, and learning resources are planned for - so to cater for the differences of individuals, without the need to teach each soldier individually. It is a difficult aspect of education to master, but it is essential given the varied abilities, backgrounds and prior learning of our soldiers. It is possible that simulation techniques could aid differentiation.

The aim of this paper is to first explain why implementing differentiation is key to effective education, and thus to military training, and second to examine how simulation can assist with implementing differentiation. The importance of military education within military training is outlined. The need for and the implementation of differentiation are then examined, and the role simulation could take in assisting is identified. The conclusion is that we can and should do simultaneous simulation and differentiation.

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Authentic Learning Through Simulation and Interactive Multimedia

Year: 2002

Authors: Aimee M. Boyd, Melinda L. Jackson

Abstract:

Accelerated advancements in knowledge creation and technology innovations require accelerated advancements in training and learning. The pace of societal change necessitates rapid and continuous skills development on a lifelong basis. Authentic learning through simulation and interactive multimedia is a training solution for the 21st century. Simulation offers a more effective, expedient and efficient means of skills training within authentic learning environments. Skills taught through computer-based simulation are readily transferable to the real-life situations they imitate. With computer-based multimedia tools, a virtual world of work can be created with job tasks and production goals, with social interactions of coworkers and supervisors, and with the sights and sounds and normative behaviors and routines of the work environment. This type of constructivist and authentic learning environment created through simulation and interactive multimedia has proven very effective in training people with low-basic skills for jobs in high-technology job sectors. This paper discusses the advantages of education and training based on authentic learning; various aspects of computer simulations and interactive multimedia; and an exemplar program that successfully trains low-skill workers through simulation-based authentic learning.

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Multi-Configuration Concurrency Pilot Training Using Re-Configurable Desktop Simulators

Year: 2002

Author: Doris Armour

Abstract:

The present and future cargo transport and gunship fleet of aircraft will consist of multiple block configurations. Once a conventional training simulator is modified to a new block configuration, the old block material that can be taught or simulated is limited. Air Force and industry partners have developed a transportable PC and SUN based, real-time, Re-configurable Desktop Simulator to resolve this issue. This paper presents RDS methods, technology and design features used to drive down cost and maximize functionality. These include single and dual aircraft configurations that represent one aircraft with two pilots or two aircraft with each pilot flying separate missions using the same or different block configurations simultaneously. This paper presents the method used to enable a Distributed Interactive Simulation environment for formation missions including the training and evaluation of formation lead using logging and playback feature.

The RDS is equipped with satellite imagery integrated with World Wide Digital Terrain Elevation Data level 1 for out-of-the window visual presentation of terrain and selected airfields. A generic runway can be selected to represent any airfield that is not in the visual database. This paper explains the technology and the methodology used for dynamically generating and loading out-of-window visual data during flight. Pre-designed RDS training scenarios include flight profiles for airland, airdrop, formation and air refueling rendezvous missions. System specific profiles are provided for Global Air Traffic Management with a Ground Earth Station, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, Terrain Awareness Warning System and future changes. Free Play permits "what if" scenarios for all of the above listed missions. This paper emphasizes the coordination and integration of the associated activities, and technologies applied to present and future flight training concepts.

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Interagency Education And Training: How To Fix What's Broken

Year: 2002

Authors: Marcy Stahl, Julia Loughran

Abstract:

US government (USG) professionals face an increasing requirement for multi-agency coordination, cooperation and planning. Operation Enduring Freedom has highlighted the fact that DoD is not alone in responding to this type of crisis. Instead, multiple USG agencies are involved in providing a cooperative and coordinated response, and this pattern of Interagency (IA) response will likely be the case in the future.

Recently, National Defense University (NDU) was designated as the Lead Agent for training, education, and after action review for USG response to Complex Contingency Operations (CCOs). NDU is currently developing an Interagency Education, Training, and After-Action Review (ITEA) program and in support of that effort ThoughtLink, Inc. conducted a requirements analysis that included 76 interviews with USG personnel from 8 different agencies.

This paper will provide the results of this study, including revealing the breadth of government specialties, how widespread and commonplace IA coordination is, the huge demand for IA training, and recommendations for fixing the current IA education and training problem. The paper will highlight concrete results from the interviews including what subjects people wanted, how much time they might spend on training, and what forms of training they preferred. It will also provide an update on the current status of the ITEA Program.

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Evaluating And Delivering The U.S. Army Aircrew Coordination Training Enhancement (ACTE) Program

Year: 2002

Authors: Gary Grubb, Dynamics Research Corporation, Neal Crossland, Fort Rucker

Abstract:

The Aircrew Coordination Training Enhancement program is a continuation of the US Army Research Institute (ARI) priority to promote applied research and development (R&D) of the Army Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) program. The goal of the ACT Enhancement effort is to provide a web-delivered, interactive aircrew coordination training system that provides Army aircrews worldwide with the knowledge and skill-sets needed to increase flight safety and mission effectiveness in daily operations. The research plan consists of three major phases - upgrade and sustain the existing ACT program, refresh and maintain the upgraded ACT program, and deploy advanced ACT applications.

This paper describes objectives and outcomes of ongoing high performance team training system R&D under the guidance of ARI. The prototype products from the first phase of research include two interactive multimedia courses of instruction with supporting training materials. Development of courseware web application components and production of graphics are achieved with a suite of Macromedia Flash and Dreamweaver UltraDev authoring tools. The Aircrew Course and Instructor Course include a fully integrated Data Management System that tracks student demographics, provides graphic feedback displays during evaluation exercises, and facilitates electronic course critiques. User testing and validation results indicate high levels of acceptance for both the training and performance evaluation components. Initial testing of the prototype courseware on the Army's distance learning suite supports both the web-based and instructor facilitated delivery strategies for Army-wide implementation. The ACT event-driven scenarios serve as model constructs for integration of ACT into advanced aircraft simulators and multiple aircraft training exercises supported by distributed interactive simulation. Ongoing research activities include developing web-based training support packages and institutional training to support Flight School XXI. Training effectiveness results have led the Army to initiate research into applying the ACTE courseware design and delivery model to other than aviation systems.

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A Study On Terrain-Surface Modeling And Polygon-Searching Algorithms For Real-Time Simulation Of Off-Road Vehicles

Year: 2002

Authors: Sugjoon Yoon, Gi-Wook Nam

Abstract: Terrain surfaces have to be modeled in very detail and wheel-surface contacting geometry must be well defined in order to obtain proper ground-reaction and friction forces for realistic simulation of off-road vehicles. Delaunay triangulation is one of the most widely used methods in modeling 3-dimensional terrain surfaces, and the T-search is a relevant algorithm for searching resulting triangular polygons. The T-search method searches polygons in a successive order and may not allow real-time computation of off-road vehicle dynamics if the terrain is modeled with many polygons, depending on the computer performance used in the simulation. In order to accelerate the searching speed of the T-search, a terrain database of triangular polygons is modeled in multi-levels by adopting the LOD (Level of Detail) method used in realtime computer graphics. Simulation results show that the new LOD-search is effective in shortening the required computing time. The LOD-search can be even further accelerated by introducing the NN (Neural Network) algorithm, in the cases where a appropriate range of moving paths can be predicted by cultual or geographical or empirical information of the simulated terrain, such as lakes, houses, etc. Numerical tests show that LOD-NN search almost doubles the speed of the original T-search.

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