Found 151 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 2001
The Quest Towards an Advanced Learning Management System

Year: 2001

Authors: Michael D. Myjak, Sean T. Sharp, Joseph Henderson, Douglas Campbell, Mark Noel, Joshua Nelson

Abstract:

Computers and the Internet are pervasive elements in personal and professional life, and their influence on education and training continues to grow rapidly. Current efforts however, are typically limited to the dissemination of text-based documents and a few graphic images with very limited use of other media, such as lectures-on-demand that take advantage of audio streaming, "slide shows" of text bullets and graphics, streaming video or integrated animations and interactive simulations. Server-based learning environments today offer little more interactivity than advanced relational database storage facilities. Future systems will likely peer with one another, including users, to dynamically create highly interactive and adaptive learning environments, more aptly suited to the student. It is our position that the future Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) environment will not only incorporate this wide range of media types, but that perhaps Learning Management Systems (LMSs) themselves will become distributed peering systems.

Taking the LMS to an advanced level requires an architecture that can support multiple users in a shared, peering, distributed, real-time environment that encourages new levels of user interaction and pedagogy. Our approach promotes an Internet-based system that generates both a highly immersive environment for the user while simultaneously minimizing other user distractions and enhancing the learning experience. Because it is built upon a sound security model, "from the ground up", it is equally appropriate for use in an evaluation mode or in potentially classified environments.Computers and the Internet are pervasive elements in personal and professional life, and their influence on education and training continues to grow rapidly. Current efforts however, are typically limited to the dissemination of text-based documents and a few graphic images with very limited use of other media, such as lectures-on-demand that take advantage of audio streaming, "slide shows" of text bullets and graphics, streaming video or integrated animations and interactive simulations. Server-based learning environ

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Experimentation in Group Robotics Behaviors

Year: 2001

Author: Dr. Peter Drewes

Abstract:

Computer generated forces have modeled some level of unmanned systems for several years. This modeling is usually in support of manned systems instead of the concentration on the robotic system as a team member. Robotic-based systems have become of greater interest with Future Combat Systems as well as successes of unmanned missiles of recent years. The focus of the robotic systems has been in the operation of a single unmanned unit, many times tele-operated. As onboard computational capabilities have enabled more autonomous operations, the focus has shifted to more autonomous operations. The current research in the robotics arenas has focused on either single robots operating in a military environment, or small groups of robots operating in a swarm type environment. There has been little leveraging of the behaviors that are created and utilized within the CGF community.

Research at SAIC has focused on the group behavior of robotic entities operating in a live environment connected and inter-operating in a constructive CGF environment. The study explored operating robotics within a "live" (real world) environment. The information and behaviors are then fed back to a "monitoring station" where they are analyzed and presented. The system is also tied into a CGF system where the real-world information is updated in the constructive system. In addition, the CGF system provided input to the robotics team concerning the constructive world. This two-way path allowed the experimentation of robotic team members operating in a live environment, with constructive team members, and with human intervention. The behavioral test bed provided the opportunity to leverage traditional CGF system behavior insertions as well as determine limitations and directions. Some of the experimentation included behavioral insertion level (physical model level, individual level, group level), performance factors affecting the robotic team including perceived world versus ground truth within CGF and live systems. These parameters offered a rich set of experimentation results. This paper reflects the lessons learned from the research project.

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Transitioning An ITS Developed For Schoolhouse Use To The Fleet-TAO ITS, A Case Study

Year: 2001

Authors: Dick Stottler, Nancy Harmon, Phil Michalak

Abstract: This paper describes our experiences in transitioning the Tactical Action Officer Intelligent Tutoring System (TAO ITS), designed and developed specifically for use by students at the Navy's Surface Warfare Officers School (SWOS), to fleet use. PMS-430 recognized that while they were fulfilling the needs of integrated team training, the Battle Force Tactical Trainer system required a major portion of the shipboard Combat Information Center (CIC) to be manned in order for the TAO to practice tactical decision-making. Experts and instructors agree that the most important factor for maintaining a TAO's tactical decision-making skill is the opportunity to practice making decisions and timely feedback. SWOS has found that the TAO ITS increased the amount of such practice by ten times. Both PMS-430 and SWOS have deemed it beneficial to transition the TAO ITS to the fleet for shipboard use. The TAO ITS and the benefits realized by students at SWOS are described in [Stottler and Vinkavich 2000]. Transitioning the TAO ITS to shipboard use would realize several benefits. Since TAO ITS is PC based and requires no extra human players or support personnel, it enables TAOs and prospective TAOs much greater opportunities to practice their tactical decision-making skills anytime/anywhere. One of the primary limitations to free-play simulated scenario training out in the field or onboard ship is the need for evaluation of the student's actions. Tactical decision-making practice is almost worthless without knowing whether the decisions were good or bad. The TAO ITS provides automatic debriefing capabilities, giving the student the important feedback as to which decisions were made correctly versus the omitted or bad ones. There were several considerations in planning the transition of the TAO ITS to fleet use due to the differences between SWOS and the ship's environment and mission. Individual ships would want to train the TAOs with data specific to their ship and with scenarios appropriate for their geographical area. The TAO ITS already possessed this ability, but the existing interface was built to be used by only a handful of SWOS instructors. These capabilities had to be made far more user-friendly. The TAO ITS was alpha-released to the Fleet in January and beta-released in April, 2001. Recommended enhancements were made, and it will be released for general fleet use in August, 2001. The results and lessons learned from this process are described in this paper.

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Fusing Simulation and Peformance Support-The Winning Combination for Improving Equipment Readiness?

Year: 2001

Author: Lt Cdr Dave Joyce RN

Abstract:

The most impressive military capability is of little use if the equipment that provides it is unavailable when needed. Although modern military equipment is becoming increasingly reliable, this is causing real problems in the maintenance training community as technicians are typically unable to maintain their skills via hands-on experience of diagnosing and fixing faults. When faults eventually do occur, technicians are unable to perform well, leading to prolonged equipment down-time and hence reduced readiness.

This paper presents the results of a detailed study which was carried out in HMS COLLINGWOOD, the Royal Navy's School of Communications and Weapon Engineering. The study compares the effectiveness of traditional laboratory-based training, a maintenance simulation and a state-of-the-art Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) at the micro level. The results indicate that, correctly employed, these approaches can dramatically shorten training time, increase the effectiveness of personnel at their place of work and provide a vehicle to make knowledge management a reality in the military context. The synergistic combination of simulation and EPSS therefore provides a very powerful toolkit to enable personnel to maintain equipment at a high state of readiness without the need for exhaustive training. The paper concludes by presenting a methodology for assessing the suitability of this approach to support the readiness of varying equipment types.

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Web-Enabled Military Student Performance Parameters

Year: 2001

Authors: David Nilsen, Ronald D. Offutt

Abstract:

In March of 2000, the government-contractor team that developed the United States Army Armor Captains Career Course-Distance Learning (ACCC-DL), won the United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA) National Award for Excellence in Distance Learning Programming. This award, for a course specially designed for reserve component officers, was based on the dynamic development of both asynchronous Internet based instruction, synchronous instruction designed for delivery within a virtual environment, and focused resident instruction. Within all three phases of the course, the team's use of advanced instructional technologies is creating radical changes in the way that instructors convey to students both the art and science of mounted warfare.

A key component to the success of this course has been the development and implementation of an impressive array of student performance metrics focused on the military student used during the asynchronous phase. For the first time within the design of a web-based course, both the student, Small Group Instructor and the Unit Commander have a real time picture of the students progress and performance within the course. Intervention and remediation of individual students to meet military course standards is now a joint responsibility guaranteeing improved performance and increased readiness.

This paper describes the key factors in the development of a web-enabled learning management system that provides a means to monitor student performance throughout the completion of the synchronous phase of the Armor Captains Career Course-DL. The paper will addresses topics such as:

Military student learning

Management concept development.

Establishing student performance metrics

Establishing student progress metrics

Determine instructor tools and remediation requirements.

Determining Unit Commander access requirements.

Determining student demographic information requirements.

Determining student, administrator and instructor access and input requirements.

LMS system design

Integration with existing Army databases

LMS Implementation results

Lessons Learned

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Using Haptic Tools to Explore Future Combat Systems Design Issues

Year: 2001

Authors: Piotr Windyga, Adam Schmidt, Allison Griffin, Gary Green, Chris Metevier

Abstract:

The planned integration of a Future Combat Systems (FCS) Virtual Crew Station with haptic peripherals is a major step forward for the development of training systems for the United States Army. This paper reports on a new approach for defining the way soldiers train. The system will allow soldiers to train faster and more effectively than ever before. The key steps in developing such a design are high level architecture design, equipment elicitation and selection, concrete configuration, software installation, interface development, and testing.

The intent of this effort is to conduct experiments involving Future Combat Systems concepts in support of FCS and the Objective Force. Essentially, STRICOM and IST are attempting to create solutions to potential problems. An example of a potential experimental effort would be the study of how to train a soldier to process the massive flow of information or inputs that he/she receives during combat operation of the Future Combat Systems.

The project is still in its initial stage of development, but tremendous progress has been made. At completion of Phase 1 this fall, the human-machine interface will be used to conduct experiments under Phase 2.

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Integration Of Common M&S Resources For Test And Training Ranges

Year: 2001

Author: R.H. Taylor

Abstract:

Guidance from the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) in the form of the Joint Test and Training Range Roadmap (JTTRR) attempts to merge and leverage test and training range efforts where feasible. A multi-year effort being performed under the Office of the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) CROSSBOW program is providing for the concurrent integration of common weapon simulations into architectures which support real-time live-fly exercises on the open air ranges (OARs) and into a high fidelity integrated air defense system (IADS) model. The real-time surface-to-air missile (RTSAM) models, which are being developed and validated under the cognizance of the Defense Intelligence Agency/Missile and Space Intelligence Center (DIA/MSIC) in Huntsville, Alabama, are related to those being developed under OSD's Joint Modeling and Simulation System (JMASS) Program.

Information regarding the mission and purpose of the CROSSBOW committee is provided, followed by a description of the RTSAMs and their specific relation to the JMASS Program. The individual integration efforts are then discussed in detail, with primary emphasis upon the integration in support of real-time OAR exercises. Topics discussed include system and subsystem requirements definition, concept of operations (CONOPS) development, porting/verification of software to the selected computer platform, development of software utilities necessary to represent site-specific operation, and comparative validation efforts following integration.

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Building An Interoperability Specification For The Marine Corps

Year: 2001

Authors: Mark Biddle, Steve Zeswitz

Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing effort to define an interoperability specification for the Marine Corps, specifically the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) training community. The focus of the research effort is on combined arms training in a distributed Modeling and Simulation (M&S) environment. The interoperability specification is built upon the High Level Architecture (HLA), and it includes the development of a Conceptual Model of the Mission Space, an HLA Federation Object Model (FOM), and an interoperability agreements specification to compliment the FOM. The development of this specification is addressing a wide range of considerations. It is addressing Marine Corps operations, doctrine and programmatic considerations, which emphasize the need to address a heterogenous set of mission domains in order to support such concepts as asynchronous warfare and operations other than war (OOTW). It is addressing issues of fidelity related to modeling the warfighter's perspective of the mission, support of an integrated learning methodology to facilitate control of the environment and measurement of performance and effectiveness, and support of scalable training at both the team and individual levels. This project is also addressing issues related to compatibility with training systems that are currently in the development cycle, as well as implementation of a flexible and evolutionary design to accommodate technological advancements. The primary purpose of this specification is to facilitate standardized interoperability of future Marine Corps training systems. This paper is a follow-up to one that was published last year entitled "Baseline Interoperability for Marine Corps Air and Ground Simulators: The Marine Air Ground Task Force Federation Object Model (MAGTF FOM)".

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Joint Training Information Management System (JTIMS) Providing Access to Common Data

Year: 2001

Authors: LTC Peter M. Limoges, Blaine Pearsall, Tom Bravo

Abstract:

The Joint Training Management Information Management System (JTIMS) provides the automated support for the joint training community to fully implement the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff directed Joint Training System. The foundation of this software is a web-based, common database structure used to capture scheduled activities of US Forces, joint training events, exercises, experiments and, potentially, joint operations. Data elements are selected using the military organization's Unit Identification Code (UIC), which allows for rapid identification of US forces down to and including unit level of detail. This capability allows commanders at all levels, up to and including the combatant commanders, to graphically see the activities of subordinate units, linked to mission based requirements defined in Joint Mission Essential Tasks. This in turn could enable commanders and resource providers to identify the resources required to fully train US forces, as well as measure performance. As described in the Joint Training Master Plan and the Joint Training Manual. The JTIMS Program Policy, Oversight, and Funding is provided by the Operational Plans and Joint Force Development Directorate, J-7, Joint Doctrine, Education, and Training Division.. A JTIMS Configuration Management Board (CMB), convenes annually representing the Unified Commands, Services, CSAs, and Joint Staff to ensure user level input to the JTIMS program.

The ultimate goal of this tool is to provide the Department of Defense, at all echelons, the ability to identify forces required for mission execution, and then to identify, allocate, and track resources required to train, organize and equip those forces, including lessons learned on improving performance. This goal cannot be fully realized without either an agreement throughout DoD to use the same data structure, or an efficient import/export capability within and between the myriad organizations in the Department. Central to this premise is the principle that data should be entered only once, and once entered should be available to all users needing that data. While technology certainly supports this capability the reality is that no architecture exits to integrate the numerous legacy policies, procedures, and disciplines making it impossible in practice. The long-range vision of JTIMS lays out the issues associated with developing a truly integrated common database by 2020.

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Acquisition Pioneering-A Case Study Of Applying Virtual Office In A Competitive Source Selection Environment

Year: 2001

Authors: Captain Erik A. Francesconi, William Lippke, Naomi C. Kump

Abstract:

Throughout corporate America, geographically dispersed workers and collaborative teams that form and disband on a project-by-project basis are growing at a rate expected to exceed 30 million by 2004. With the enhancement of telecommunication technologies; companies have been able to exploit the virtual world, find innovative ways to maintain their competitive edge, recruit and retain key individuals, and enhance the quality of life by removing the requirement that tied workers to a particular office building.

The notion of virtual office was addressed in a study conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, acknowledging that telecommuting will increase and remote locations may be the hallmark of the early 21st century in private industry and Government. This suggests a need for the Air Force to search for ways to allow its people (both military and civilian) to work effectively and efficiently from remote, home-station locations while involved with centralized acquisition locations.

This paper addresses the feasibility and issues associated with one of the first Air Force source selection that utilized the concept of telecommuting with multiple users at multiple remote locations. It describes the F-16 Modular Simulated Aircraft Maintenance Trainer (MSAMT) team's streamlined selection processes that exploited the newly automated capability of the Acquisition Support Division. The need for a progressive acquisition approach stemmed from significant decreases in Government funding, specifically for F-16 training systems. The networking of four (4) remote locations to a centralized acquisition facility saved TDY (travel) time and scarce funds. This advancement in telecommuting allowed participants to continue day-to-day operations at their primary duty station while continuing to integrate their assessments and periodic interaction with the selection decision process. This allowed the project manager to use the expertise of key, off-base Government personnel (users from the Air Combat Command, the Air Education and Training Command, and the Air Logistics Center).

The proven success of the F-16 MSAMT source selection process is one demonstration of Government telecommuting. With further consideration, the results of this approach could have application for future Air Force source selections as well as throughout the Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition community.

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