Found 152 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 2000
OPENFLIGHT DATABASE CONVERSION FOR DISTRIBUTED MISSION TRAINING PC-BASED IMAGE GENERATORS

Year: 2000

Authors: Budimir Zvolanek, Donna N. Allen, William Paone, Richard Clark, San Jose

Abstract: Distributed Mission Training (DMT) F-15C Program has been underway to augment existing USAF joint training capabilities. Each DMT F-15C site consists of four full-field-of-view Visual Integrated Display Systems (VIDS's) driven by high-end ESIG-4530GT image generators (IGs). Also parts of each DMT F-15C site are desktop PC-based IGs networked with the ESIGs. The challenge is to achieve visual correlation using IGs and databases (DBs) of such widely differing performance levels and architectures. This paper describes a DB conversion process jointly developed by Boeing, Westar, Evans and Sutherland (E&S), and Terrain Experts. One of several challenges was polygon co-planarity, however, cutting coplanar polygons into the underlying layers by an Automated Database Generation and Reconstruction Tool solved the problem. Excellent degree of correlation, accuracy, and PC-based IG update rates have been achieved for the Eglin, Nellis, Langley, and Southwest Asia databases, indicating a significant potential for cost-saving re-use of existing databases by PC-based image generators.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Instruction in the world of distance learning: What Makes a Distance Education Program First Rate?

Year: 2000

Author: Camille K. Fareri

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM FOR TACTICAL AIRCRAFT TRAINING (ITS-AIR): LESSONS LEARNED & FUTURE CHALLENGES

Year: 2000

Authors: Dr. Dutch Guckenberger, Dale Jewell, Frank Luongo

Abstract:

The Intelligent Tutoring System for Tactical Aircraft (ITS-AIR) is designed to enhance pilot learning while reducing lifecycle costs associated with on-site simulation operators and instructors. ITS-AIR is envisioned as an add-on system for future, existing and legacy simulators. SDS s rationale in producing the ITS-AIR system is based upon a divide and conquer methodology utilizing COTS & GOTS DIS/HLA resources coupled with simple small cooperative intelligent agents. The prototype ITS-AIR system presented in this paper can be logically viewed as two cooperative main modules. SAM the Systems Automation Module that replaces the on-site simulation operators and HIT the Hierarchical Intelligent Tutor module that reduces the on-site instructor requirements. SAM is an intelligent agent that provides the pilots with a simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) that starts and synchronizes all the ITS-AIR System components. For example, in the NAWC/TSD funded SDS, BMH and SOAR ITS-AIR Testbed (See Figure 2) SAM currently starts two LiteFliteTM Simulators, JSAF, SOAR, SOAR-Speak, ModIOSTM, I-Matrix , Academix T M and HIT. SAM also freezes, restarts and stops the components in a synchronous manner. Additionally, SAM is used by HIT to load and control lessons. SAM also contains TCIA the Temporal Control Intelligent Agent the controls the flow of simulated time throughout the distributed simulation architecture. TCIA services provide the HIT with the capacity to slow the pace of events for early skill acquisition phases, or present learning events in slow motion emphasizing the details that may not be easily perceived at normal real-time rates. TCIA services also provide the HIT with Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) Capabilities. ARTT has demonstrated to produce large training benefits (Guckenberger, Lane, Stanney 1992; Guckenberger and Crane 1997) and is envisioned to have even higher performance benefits when used in conjunction with HIT. SAM provides the pilots with a simple GUI to log-in, select curriculum lessons, free-play or mission rehearsal modes. SAM and HIT allow the pilots to train in a user-friendly, non-threatening environment in which the student can be guided through training scenarios based on instructor defaults or dynamic configuration by the student. Performance data can be recorded into the students HIT database records via XML based on the preferences of the instructor and / or student. HIT supports:

q Expert Review - Presentation of experts doing tasks,

monitor differences between current pilot performance and different levels of experts corresponding performance

Intelligent tutoring options based upon pilot performance and pilot questions

HIT is actually composed of multiple components and simple cooperative intelligent agents utilizing XML resources.

The ITS-AIR Testbed will allow for the full integration and testing of various modular components of the ITS-AIR system. The Testbed will be fully utilized for experimentation and validation of the various Pedagogical Intelligent Agent technologies related to Intelligent Tutoring. It is anticipated that ITS-AIR will successfully address numerous requirements for Warfighters, utilizing products of PMA205, USAF DMT and NASA s Aviation Safety and Capacity programs.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
LOW COST TACTICAL TRAINER INSTRUCTION / TACTICAL TRAINING

Year: 2000

Authors: Christian BIDAULT, Olivier GAUTHRON

Abstract:

The capability of an Army to fight not only resides in the use of leading edge technology weapons, communications, command and control systems but also in the readiness of well trained troops and officers. This level of readiness requires appropriate staff training. However, the needs for such training at unit level are drastically different to that of individual / crew training.

This paper describes an innovative approach for the training of commanders of small armored or mechanized infantry units, company commanders or section/platoon leaders. It features a realistic virtual tactical environment, is capable to operate with a limited number of instructors and is easy to deploy for training at battalion facilities.

This tactical trainer (called SYSIMEV-IA) ordered by the French Army to THOMSON- CSF in Dec 98, will undergo experimental trials in the combat training center in MAILLY (France) at the end of 2000. The system design is resulting from a trade-off between cost, realism and fidelity to the real world. In this particular case, rather than seeking full fidelity in representing the trainee's environment, emphasis is put in reproducing the tactical environment of the commanders; in other words : simulation-relevant is what influences the trainees decisions. So, the main objective is to place the trainees in a situation as near as possible to a real battlefield, providing a tactical situation with immediate feedback capability (3D simulated sensors, tactical data links, 2D map presentation, simulated radio communications layer) and to train the trainees to react to unplanned events, take the initiative and make the right decisions.

The system architecture is based on PC-based 3D graphic desktop stations for trainees and role players, networked with a sophisticated constructive simulation PC server, and the exercise director /instructor / analyst PC stations. The constructive simulation is controlled in real-time by the instructors who activate the enemy, neutral, allied and flanking units. The role players carry out the orders from the trainees. The system can train company commanders or platoon commanders with their subordinate teams (trained role players).

This first application is planned to be followed by a tactical trainer for commanders of attack helicopters, and also to be experimented for combined arms tactical training using HLA/DIS networking interface capabilities within a simulation federation based on legacy simulations.

This paper will describe the operational objectives, system architecture, simulation technologies, and choices and trade-offs that led to this innovative concept.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
TACTICAL DRIVER TRAINING USING SIMULATION "Recent Experiences in Law Enforcement Driving Simulation"

Year: 2000

Authors: Reginald T. Welles, Michael Holdsworth

Abstract: Leading edge Commercial Driving Simulators are being employed by several police departments in the United States to help them cope with the expanding demand to improve their drivers' safety and proficiency. These simulators are being used in a variety of application areas: Basic Driver Decision Making, Tactical Driver Maneuvering, Hazard and Threat Awareness, Intersection Analysis, Improving Driver Multi-tasking Skills, Patrolling, Pursuit, Practice of Policies and Procedures, and Emergency Code 3 Response. The lessons learned by these police departments, i.e., Raleigh, NC, San Antonio, TX, West Covina, CA and several others, can provide an introductory look at the benefits, challenges, and techniques that work in a simulator-based, tactical training environment. This paper addresses those lessons learned from an operational and mission perspective. In addition, the technology is described. Simulator performance is defined in technical and human factors terms. Special emphasis is made to identify how the technology is used and its success in improving driver performance. Finally, a summary of successful simulator features and their corresponding value to desired performance is provided based upon police department results.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS FOR PROCEDURAL TASK TRAINING OF REMOTE PAYLOAD OPERATIONS AT NASA

Year: 2000

Authors: James C. Ong, Steven R. Noneman, Operations Training Group

Abstract:

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) complement training simulators by providing automated instruction when it is not economical or feasible to dedicate an instructor to each student during training simulations. To lower the cost and difficulty of creating scenario-based intelligent tutoring systems for procedural task training, we developed the Task Tutor Toolkit (T3), a generic tutoring system shell and scenario authoring tool. The Task Tutor Toolkit employs a case-based reasoning approach where the instructor creates a procedure template that specifies the range of student actions that are "correct" within each scenario. The system enables a non-programmer to specify task knowledge quickly and easily by via graphical user interface, using a "demonstrate, generalize, and annotate" paradigm, that recognizes the range of possible valid actions and infers general principles that are understood (or misunderstood) by the student when those actions are carried out. The annotated procedure template also enables the Task Tutor Toolkit to provide hints requested by the student during scenarios, such as What do I do now? and Why do I do that? At the end of each scenario, RPOT displays the principles correctly or incorrectly demonstrated by the student, along with explanations and background information. The Task Tutor Toolkit was designed to be modular and general so that it can be interfaced with a wide range of training simulators and support a variety of training domains.

We used the Task Tutor Toolkit to create the Remote Payload Operations Tutor (RPOT), a tutoring system application which lets scientists who are new to space mission operations learn to monitor and control their experiments aboard the International Space Station according to NASA payload regulations, guidelines, and procedures. NASA is currently evaluating the effectiveness of RPOT and the Task Tutor Toolkit and is exploring other potential training applications for the Task Tutor Toolkit.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
USE OF ACTIVE NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISTRIBUTED SIMULATION

Year: 2000

Authors: Dr. Stephen Zabele, Thomas Stanzione

Abstract:

While distributed simulation infrastructures have evolved dramatically over the past several years to provide ever increasing levels of flexibility, abstraction, and interoperability, the scalability and performance of the simulation infrastructure continues to be a critical limiting factor. In particular, it is now becoming apparent that the limitations of the supporting networking technologies are a significant impediment to achieving needed levels of scalability and performance. Advancing the state-of-the-art for large-scale distributed simulations therefore requires significant advances both in the underlying network technologies and in the ability of simulations to exploit these new capabilities.

Under the Specialized Active Networking technologies for Distributed Simulation (SANDS) project sponsored by the Information Technology Office (ITO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), TASC and the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (UMass) are developing Active Networks-based capabilities to improve significantly the performance of network-based distributed simulations1. Our primary objective is reducing the substantial amounts of irrelevant network traffic delivered to simulation hosts in order to both improve bandwidth efficiency and to reduce the considerable overhead associated with reading and discarding unneeded data. Our approach involves installing dynamic packet filters within the network that act on behalf of each host to eliminate unneeded packets as early as possible. Our goal is a seamless integration with the High Level Architecture (HLA) Declaration Management (DM) and Data Distribution Management (DDM) services.

Use of Active Networks to provide interest management services offers several important benefits to large scale simulations: (i) Because each entity can install its own filters, information filtering is accomplished in a "receiver-driven" manner, allowing each entity to customize its filters according to its own need. This decentralized approach allows active filtering to scale well as the number of entities grows large. (ii) Because active filtering is performed at a routing point, filtering can also be dependent on the state (e.g., congestion-level) at that router. In particular, this allows both entities and network routers to determine which data should be shed in times of congestion overload, and provides an effective means for mediating among the conflicting demands of different entities.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
MOBILE AID FOR TRAINING AND EVALUATION (MATE): A HAND-HELD, CONFIGURABLE SET OF TEAM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT TOOLS

Year: 2000

Authors: Denise M. Lyons, Robert C. Allen

Abstract:

Researchers at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD) have developed multiple instructor aides for performance measurement hosted on hand-held computers. The initial prototype, Shipboard Mobile Aide for Training and Evaluation (ShipMATE), provides instructors with an automated tool for presenting pre-brief information, collecting data and conducting a debrief utilizing the Team Dimensional Training strategy. This tool was originally presented in 1997. Since then, additional training and evaluation software applications have been developed for Air, Surface, Ground, and Sub-Surface domains in both classroom and operational settings. We refer to the set of available performance measurement tools, which can be loaded onto a hand-held device in any combination, as MATE. The applications on MATE have been tailored to accommodate various performance measurement methodologies, including outcome and process measures, aimed at capturing individual and team performance. Examples of screen designs will illustrate how each software tool is a unique combination of tools such as embedded checklists, a scrolling scenario script window, data tagging buttons, organizational tabs, voice recording, digital handwriting, instructor cueing, links to embedded systems and networking of multiple hand-held devices.

This paper will review the multiple tools that have been developed and present suggested utilization of the optional screen functions. The value added by each function will be discussed as well as the viability of this technology in various operational settings including sea trials aboard AEGIS ships and field operations during Army exercises. Finally, guidelines for developing hand-held instructor aides for future training systems will be summarized.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
A CASE STUDY ON MODEL INTEGRATION, USING SUPPRESSOR

Year: 2000

Author: Gregory L. Douglas

Abstract: In an effort to create a reusable Computer Generated Forces (CGF) model that would be useful in supporting Simulated Based Acquisition (SBA) environments, an opportunity was presented to modify interfaces to Suppressor in order for it to operate in such an environment. Using real-time modifications to Suppressor as a baseline, it was desired to further create a CGF that would support the integration of multiple models and simulations. The desired outcome was to develop a model that would allow a combination of other models and simulations to play together, sharing data and commands, to represent one entity in Suppressor (i.e., an aggregate of the parts simulated in various simulations and Command, Control, Communication, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems). At the same time, the infrastructure of this system had to be flexible to the point that no specific external model and no specific number of external models had to be present in the exercise in order for the entire entity to exist. It was determined that a flexible system such as this would be beneficial to those pursuing SBA activities because it would provide a means of piecing together a variety of systems until the user came up with a workable solution that was capable of meeting all of their design goals. This paper will give a brief overview of Suppressor and the underlying real-time infrastructure. It will explain the different variations of subsystems that can now be used to create a configurable entity within Suppressor, describe how this type of approach could be beneficial in a dynamically changing SBA environment, and present major lessons learned.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
UCAV Distributed Mission Training Testbed: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

Year: 2000

Authors: Dr. Dutch Guckenberger, Matt Archer

Abstract:

The UCAV DMT Testbed research will focus on technologies for: defining effective training strategies for UAV/UCAV operators; assessing the delta in training required for multiple vehicles; advanced displays driven from human factors design; integration of Geneva Aerospace s Variable Autonomy Control System; and integrating several UAV and UCAV Flight Model into the Testbed. Potential applications include direct linkage of UCAV Testbeds as Participants in DMT. This paper chronicles the development of the UCAV DMT Testbed from the perspective of lessons learned and details features planned to support the initial research efforts planned for 2000.

Four successful UCAV DMT demonstrations and experiments are presented from a lessons learned perspective. Starting with the initial separately developed PC-Based UCAV simulations; evolving to the merging of the simulations and initial DMT research experiments including DMTO&I testbed, I/ITSEC99 and planned AFRL Mesa UCAV DMT Demonstrations. Key testbed components included the LiteFlite Flight Simulator, JSAF and SOAR applications, and the Variable Autonomy Control System (VACS). The unique and innovative portions of this paper detail the components integration for UCAV missions and operational concepts, along with the human factors engineering on the VACS human-system interface design and LiteFlite researcher toolkit interfaces. Illustrative examples, are also included with sufficient details to support other government, industry and academic organizations participation in future UCAV DMT experiments and demonstrations.

Participating organizations include but are not limited to AFRL Mesa, SDS International, Geneva Aerospace, Eglin 46th Test Wing PRIMES, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Tuskegee University, Computer Science Corporation. Future participants may include Navy Pax River (MFS and Distributed Simulation Groups), AFRL Wright-Patterson and Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab. Additional discussion includes related UCAV DMT Research topics of :

• LiteFlite UCAV and Testbed Utilization of the Ordnance Server to ensure DMT Fair Fight

• Innovations associated with a new Distributed Ordnance Server to insure Temporal Correlation of the

• Target/Counter-Measure/Weapon Triad

• An Innovative new concept of handing off UCAV Ownership from the Virtual LiteFlite Host Simulation to

the Constructive JSAF and SOAR Agents to automate tasks for the UCAV operators Results from three initial UCAV integration efforts are presented detailing DIS integration with existing DMT assets and HLA integration with planned DMT configurations I/ITSEC99, USAF Only DMTO&I Demonstration Jan2000, DMT UCAV Testbed development for AFRL/HEA and UAV 2000 Demonstration July 2000. An outline of planned research efforts that will utilize the DMT UCAV Testbed are presented along with Future Research Directions.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login