Found 170 Papers
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Volume 1999
Safety for Live-Fire Training Systems

Year: 1999

Author: Jason Asbell

Abstract:

An important component of military training is training conducted with live ordnance. Safety—the protection of life and property—is a critical requirement of the systems that provide this training. As software solutions are applied to these systems, methods and processes are needed to ensure that the implemented software solutions perform as required in a safe manner. These systems include a number of types:

• Systems that are part of the weapons being fired or that are part of "smart" ordnance

• Systems that are part of vehicles on which the weapons are mounted

• Systems that are part of the Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) being used in the scenario

• Systems that are involved with the training itself - controlling targets, providing simulated data to C4I systems, etc.

• Systems that are external to the training itself and that monitor the training to ensure safety

This paper will discuss the safety issues associated with these types of systems, the safety issues associated with live-fire training systems, and the practices of designing and developing safe software systems. Included in this discussion will be the analysis of case studies presenting various training incidents and how these might have been prevented through proper application of software safety practices.

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Distributed Virtual Training Applications for Education of Maintenance and Service Personnel

Year: 1999

Authors: Axel Hintze, Marco Schumann, Stefan Stuering

Abstract: This paper describes the application of VR-based computer simulation in the field of practical training. It introduces a training application that is currently under development. The training application is designed to reduce the need for practical training with the actual object. The main objective of the project is to develop a general modeling methodology that can be utilized in a wide variety of scenarios, while minimizing the need for programming simulation source code. Added benefits, such as reduction of traveling costs and time needed for travel, can be achieved by the utilization of distributed simulation following the High Level Architecture standard.

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Achieving An Acceptable Return On Investment From Training Technology

Year: 1999

Author: Joseph Mattoon

Abstract: Many programs are now using information technology (IT) to deliver training, but in the absence of instructional design principles that match technological capabilities to learning needs, IT systems may fail to improve training effectiveness. One of the most versatile and commonly used IT-based training is interactive multimedia instruction (IMI). The purpose of this paper is to identify general principles for designing IMI that help ensure an acceptable return on investment in this technology. The principles are presented in the form of "General Facilitative Links" (GFLs) that tie technological capability to human learning processes. Examples of GFL application are focused on the type of complex skills that student pilots must develop during aviation training. A substantial proportion of pilot training and other types of complex skill training takes place outside of the operational environment, and this training can directly benefit from IMI when properly designed and implemented. In particular, IMI can be designed with simulation and adaptive components that prepare learners for more advanced training in dedicated simulators (e.g., flight simulators) or with operational equipment. Seven GFLs are identified to guide the design of IMI and take advantage of certain IT capabilities that are not available to conventional training. Each GFL is matched to several "Return on Investment (ROI) Factors" that describe value-added capabilities for training. It is proposed that GFLs will help courseware designers exploit IT capabilities that best support learning.

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Computer Modeling in Functional Allocation

Year: 1999

Authors: Stephanie Barnes, Jeanine Williamson, Mona Crissey, Clark Karr, Sarah Aust

Abstract: The complexity of simulation systems has created a challenge for system designers in creating systems that are optimal for both machine and human performance. One of the most useful Human Factors analyses in creating an optimal simulation system is Functional Allocation. While several methodologies exist for Traditional Functional Allocation between humans and computers, many problems exist with current approaches. WARSIM 2000, a computer-based training simulation, has tackled the challenge using computer modeling tools. A new approach, Systematic Functional Allocation, was developed in response to problems identified with Traditional Functional Allocation. This paper outlines Traditional Functional Allocation and its associated problems, provides a general description of Systematic Functional Allocation and describes how the new approach was executed for WARSIM 2000. A sampling of computer models, as well as output reports are provided and discussed. Systematic Functional Allocation has assisted WARSIM Human Factors engineering in making critical design recommendations which have significantly impacted the system design. While this methodology was created specifically for WARSIM, it has potential for use by other simulation systems and domains.

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Designing for Change: A Modeling and Simulation System Approach

Year: 1999

Authors: Michael Companion, Charles Mortimer

Abstract:

Training simulation systems for the 21st century are growing increasingly more complex. They are characterized by being multi-role, i.e., "what do I want to train today", rather than a point design aimed at solving a specific training need. In addition, these systems are no longer viewed as being a final design at Initial Operating Capability (IOC). Instead, they must continue to evolve and adapt to changing requirements over an extended period of time. This paradigm changes the approach to effective system design. This paper discusses an approach to developing a flight simulation system intended to meet a changing training environment.

Changes that drive the evolution of a simulation system design originate from changes in:

• Mission

• Requirements

• Technology

An approach to addressing changing missions is through the mapping of the mission to a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that describes how all of the components work together to achieve the training objectives. This approach provides a broader perspective of mission needs that highlights the interaction and correlation between components.

An approach to addressing changing requirements is through the mapping of system requirements to the system design. This approach supports a flexible modular design. In the past, networking of flight simulation devices was a simple linking of integrated devices. In the future, systems components which are normally integral to a training device, such as electronic combat environment (ECE), natural environment, instructor operator station (IOS), are broken into separate simulation system components that can be flexibly configured to "build" the simulation system to support any training mission need. The end result is a totally modular and distributed simulation architecture in which every component is equivalent to a system in itself. This architecture places greater emphasis on understanding and facilitating the integration, interaction and correlation of the simulation system components.

An approach to addressing changing technology is by mapping of technology to the system architecture and performance requirements. This approach provides the visualization necessary to develop effective long-term technology incorporation by identifying optimum targets of opportunity to maintain concurrency, circumvent obsolescence, enhance training effectiveness and/or cost effectiveness.

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Infra-Red Sensor Simulation

Year: 1999

Authors: Sanjiv Bhatia, George Lacy

Abstract: This paper describes technical/mathematical solutions for simulating infra-red sensor effects. We have implemented our simulation using a PC running Windows NT and off-the-shelf image processing hardware and software. In particular, we describe the computation of the dynamic characteristics of the actual sensor package within the constraints of hardware and software environment. These characteristics can include video polarity, gain, contrast enhancement, noise, blurring, AC coupling, sensor defects, as well as video overlays (reticules/test patterns), and are applied in the post-processor phase. This paper describes the research and development into the Infra-Red Post Processor (IRPP) algorithms needed to support the sensor simulation. The system performs all the operations in real-time with a 30 Hz refresh cycle. The IRPP is modular and can be easily changed by configuration data.

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The Armor Captains Career Course: The Art and Science of Mounted Warfare Via the Internet

Year: 1999

Authors: David Robinson, Ronald Offutt

Abstract: Training the art and science of mounted warfare to its soldiers presents significant challenges for today's Army in an environment of constrained resources, expanding missions, and unit reorganizations. The traditional "best practice" for this learning is a multi-month resident program of instruction, with an alternative correspondence program for those unable to attend resident courses. Understandably, correspondence programs cannot offer the same depth of learning in the "art" of mounted operations as resident courses because the interaction of small group instruction and peer collaboration cannot be duplicated. For various reasons, correspondence courses are often the only viable option for most Reserve Component soldiers, giving them little opportunity to fully develop the range of complex abilities demanded by mounted operations. To address this dilemma the U.S. Army Armor School at Fort Knox, Kentucky, has established a dynamic, innovative program to deliver both the art and science of mounted warfare to a diverse, sophisticated, and widely dispersed student population using learning technologies. The Armor School applied lessons learned from operational tests of various distributed learning methods to create a student-centric, open learning environment that provides a model for future military distributed learning courses addressing similar content. This paper describes the conception, development, implementation, and evaluation of the Armor Captains Career Course, used to qualify Reserve Component officers to command and serve in the mounted arms.

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Information Assurance: the Forgotten Requirement in Simulation Systems

Year: 1999

Author: Ronda Henning

Abstract:

In the course of satisfying requirements for functionality, user effectiveness, and performance, one category of requirements is regularly overlooked in the simulation community—the requirement for information assurance. Information assurance is usually considered as an afterthought, minimally addressed as a mandatory compliance requirement for system operation.

The next generation of simulation systems is being built on the premise of training using operational systems, with the same data, of the same resolution and fidelity, as the data used for operational missions. Consequently, what was once an unclassified simulation system may suddenly have classified network interfaces, or classified information as part of a previously unclassified simulation. Doctrine, tactics, and response times of units within a training exercise may or may not be classified. Distributed simulations, executing in federated networks of systems, may include coalition forces that may or may not be authorized access to live systems. The requirement for controlled information sharing among participants becomes much more prominent in this emerging environment.

Information assurance encompasses information availability, integrity, confidentiality, nonrepudiation, and authentication. It ensures that data is genuine, protected, and available where it is needed, when it is needed, and that it is used by authorized users for authorized operations. A primary feature of information assurance is system protection, detection, and restoration of systems to a known, secure state.

This paper presents a discussion of information assurance requirements in the context of simulation systems. The current and emerging requirements for information assurance are presented from both a regulatory and an implementation perspective. Implementation of Information Assurance in the HLA is addressed, as well as system certification and accreditation through the Defense Information Technology Systems Certification and Accreditation Process. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact of information assurance on the system development process and system operations.

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Domain Requirements for Constructive Wargames for Command and Staff Training and C4I Stimulation

Year: 1999

Authors: Randy Brasch, Lisa Callahan, Eytan Pollak

Abstract: A small team of engineers and subject matter experts at Lockheed Martin Information Systems has recently completed a Domain Analysis focused on constructive simulations used in both command and staff training (CAST) systems and command, control, communication, computer, and intelligence (C4I) stimulation systems. The intent of the domain analysis was to collect typical requirements for such systems and identify a common set of requirements that could be used to drive the development of a framework and toolset to facilitate future development of systems in the domain. This paper describes the results of that domain analysis. Specifically, it highlights the effort to sufficiently abstract and level the requirements to define the constructive simulation framework and toolset and it identifies the areas in which the currently recognized requirements are weak or missing.

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Maneuver Combat Training Centers (MCTCs) Interface Control Documentation (ICD) Configuration Control Process

Year: 1999

Author: Joseph Baldauf

Abstract: The purpose of the Interface Control Configuration Control Board is to manage the process of input of new items into the core instrumentation systems in such a manner as to ensure Operations and Sustainment of major combat training systems in a manner that meets the customers needs and the providers configuration control concerns. Areas of interest in the management process include: the concepts of electronic commerce for discrimination of meeting items, agendas, approval processes and control of documentation, the concept of multi command inclusion in the process, and the concept of consensus in making decisions for each of the combat training centers. Version control and publishing of all changes are maintained by a joint IPT initiative between the Contract O&S provider and the Logistics configuration control engineers. The documents and supporting information are maintained on the STRICOM (Government) WEB site for access by developers, sustainment personnel, user community and other commands/entities involved in maintenance of the training systems. Each of these areas and the process of maintaining them will be addressed in detail in the paper and subsequent presentation.

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