Found 105 Papers
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Volume 1998
MPEG Video Capture for Full-Mission after Action Review

Year: 1998

Authors: Louis Gallo, Gordon Richards

Abstract: Advanced technologies for digital video capture and replay are fast emerging as a method for enhancing crew training and rehearsal. Some of these emerging digital video technologies were selected as the core infrastructure for a digital video record/replay system supporting the AC-130U Nav/FCO and Sensor Operator Testbed (AC-130U TB) at Hurlburt Field, Florida. This paper discusses the process of evaluation, design, and integration of an emerging technology solution to capture multiple synchronous channels of high resolution symbology, radar, FLIR, aural cues and crew intercom and play them back simultaneously and synchronously for instructor and student review. Selected channels of data can be captured at various fidelity levels for review either at the AC-130U TB using higher resolution MPEG2 encode /decode hardware or can be encoded into MPEG1 for playback from a laptop computer's CDROM using Microsoft's Active Movie MPEG1 software decoder. Topics covered include the requirement to evaluate simulation recording technologies available and the design, integration and fielding of the prototype software and hardware solution selected for integration into the AC-130U TB program. Technologies identified and their advantages and disadvantages include traditional linear videotape – both analog and digital, digital video compression algorithms to include motion JPEG and MPEG and their application for after-action review systems. Lessons learned throughout the development of this project will also be discussed. Additional discussion will provide insight into the various video standards, i.e., 875 line RS 343 and 525 line RS 170A and the challenges to preserve the highest fidelity in recording and playing back non-standard video content. MPEG2 video server and client technologies were developed for this project and their migration from current digital video and CD-R technology to DVD recording and playback envisioned for future technology enhancements to the system will also be covered.

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Cross-Contractor, Cross Discipline Software Integration and Product Development

Year: 1998

Author: Camille Brinkman

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

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The Iowa Project: An Operational Test of Integrated Distributed Learning

Year: 1998

Author: David Robinson

Abstract: Recent advances in computer and communications technology present the U.S. Army Armor School at Fort Knox, Kentucky with opportunities to attain greater effectiveness in its resident instruction-and wider dissemination of its learning programs-through the use of advanced distributed learning. This paper describes the conception, development, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of an operational test conducted by the Armor School in collaboration with the Iowa Army National Guard to deliver instruction to a remote site using a variety of distributed learning media: videoteletraining, Internet based asynchronous and synchronous training, computer based training, and conventional paper based products. The Iowa Project employed synchronous and asynchronous elements, successfully prototyping a model for selecting and integrating several different, low-cost distributed learning media to prepare students for resident instruction. Further, the Iowa Project validated concepts for converting existing resident instruction into multi-phased, and multi-media, integrated distributed and resident learning. Armed with experience gained from the Iowa Project, the Armor School has embarked on a multi-year project to convert their courses from purely resident instruction into integrated distributed learning instructional programs.

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A Taxonomy of Multiple Federation Executions

Year: 1998

Authors: Michael Myjak, Russell Carter, Douglas Wood, Mikel Petty

Abstract:

The High Level Architecture (HLA) supports the interoperation of sets of simulations within the context of a Federation Object Model (FOM), using the HLA Interface Specification services as provided by the Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI). Such simulations are federates and the set of federates is a federation. A run of a federation is a federation execution. Although the "normal" mode of operation is for a federate to operate in a single federation execution at any given point in time, the definition of HLA leaves open the possibility that a federate may be a member of multiple concurrently executing federation executions. In other words, two (or more) concurrent federation executions, of the same or different federations, could have one or more federates in common. Presumably the common federate(s) would exchange information between executions or otherwise use the events of one execution to influence another.

There are several distinct types of multi-federation executions. At the most basic level of classification, they can be broadly typed as either bridged or hierarchical. Bridged federation executions have one or more federates, called bridge federates, which are members of two (or more) federation executions. Recent literature has been primarily directed toward the common, or bridge federates which exchange (or transform) information between federation executions. In a hierarchical federation execution, one or more federates in the higher-level federation are composed of and implemented as lower-level federations, but appear as federates at the higher level. In this paper we develop a taxonomy of multiple federation executions, including examples.

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Problem-Based Team Training: Guidelines for Designing Scenarios

Year: 1998

Author: Marcel Van Berlo

Abstract: In problem-based learning environments the learners work actively on problem tasks in order to learn specific subject-matter. Often the learning activities are applied in a collaborative way. Because it is impossible to train all variations of all tasks, the processes underlying effective performance should also be focused on. By means of guided group discussion and reflecting on the problems, the fostering of learning- to-learn skills is stimulated: a deep understanding of the performance will increase the probability that learners will perform well in situations not encountered previously. Guided by a coach the learners discuss about the problem tasks, and exchange experiences with each other. Although the current problembased learning programs focus on mastering individual skills, this could be extended to team skills as well. Team training programs are primarily aimed at the behavioral and cognitive requirements of team task performance. In many cases, technologically advanced learning environments are employed, like simulations, (distributed interactive) simulators, and virtual reality. In these learning environments complex problems can be practiced, requiring the team to work together in a coordinate way. Important conditions for effective team training, just as in individual problem-based learning, are adequate training scenarios, appropriate guidance by a coach, and ample opportunities for reflecting on the learning tasks. The paper focuses on the iterative process of designing problem-based team training scenarios. A set of guidelines will be described comprising the following categories: (A) general approach, (B) structure of a scenario, (C) contents of a scenario, (D) training strategy, (E) team performance and feedback, and (F) role of the instructor/observer. Our experiences with these guidelines in specifying Training Support Packages for training teams in networked simulators will be discussed as well.

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Deployable Air Combat Training in a Live Entity Simulation Environment

Year: 1998

Author: Ted Clowes

Abstract: Keeping front line forces current and at the highest level of readiness requires that their training systems be designed to deploy with them when they go to a temporary duty station. This paper provides insight into the design and use of such a system for training USAF pilots in air combat. Both a developmental/demonstration system and a production system currently operating out of Kadena AB, Okinawa are covered. The system was designed using DIS architecture concepts with the proposed Live Entity protocols that went into ballot during the summer of 1997. The production system went operational during August of 1997 and has ended up being used in ways not entirely anticipated during the design. It has also been deployed to other locations with the squadrons of the 18th Air Wing. Discussions of the basic design are followed by information on the simulation issues related to air to air training with live players. Practical constraints of dealing with live entities in a mobile environment are addressed, followed by the results of operation and test activities to date. The conclusion addresses some of the unexpected problems of deployable training systems, as well as some of the benefits.

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Using a Virtual Environment to Elicit Shiphandling Knowledge

Year: 1998

Authors: Michael Martin, Elizabeth Sheldon, Steve Kass, Andrew Mead, Sherrie Jones, Robert Breaux

Abstract: This paper discusses initial development of Virtual Environment Training Technologies (VETT) to facilitate knowledge elicitation, task analysis, and performance measure development for naval training. Primary components included on-going hardware and software development in the VETT test-bed, iterative prototyping capabilities, and flexible performance recording and review capabilities. The customer for this effort, the Surface Warfare Officers' School (SWOS), envisions the use of virtual environments to train "seaman's eye," an expert perceptual technique currently learned through extensive apprenticeship training. The chosen target task for the R&D process was Underway Replenishment (UNREP). The process began with the use of standard Knowledge Elicitation (KE) techniques (e.g., document reviews and interviews) to obtain an UNREP task description. This description was then used to develop a prototype simulation and a generic UNREP scenario on the VETT test-bed. Subject matter experts included Merchant Marine harbor pilots, visiting line Surface Warfare Officers (SWOs), and in-house expert reservists. The SWOs performed the simulated UNREP scenario while video was recorded from their viewpoint (i.e., first-person perspective). The videos provided further KE capability by permitting SWOs to explain what they did and why they did it in a context-specific manner during a debrief session. This arrangement produced more elaborate explanations than the initial interviews, apparently because it reminded the experts of subtle, nonverbal cues used to perform UNREP. The context-specific interviews stimulated more detailed discussions of the validity of the simulation and potential performance measures. Based on initial analysis, the prototype was taken to SWOS for a simulation validity experiment. Progressive refinements will be described and the results of a simulation validation experiment will be presented.

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Cooperation, Technology, & Performance a Case Study

Year: 1998

Authors: Thomas Cavanagh, Sabrina Dickenson, Suzanne Brandt

Abstract:

Using computer-based training as a medium for facilitating a cooperative-based learning environment is a concept that has recently been receiving a lot of attention. A combination of cooperative learning principles, technology-driven tools, and performance-based assessment have proven to be a successful approach for teaching technical skills, while at the same time reinforcing teamwork skills.

The foundations of the Cooperation, Technology, and Performance (CTP) model are largely based on proven learning and assessment theories that have been combined to create performance-driven results. This session will introduce the CTP model and how it is used by the Veteran's Benefit Administration to achieve maximum return on investment. Application of the CTP model to other jobs and/or industries will also be discussed.

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Integrated CBT Smart Graphics: Cost-Saving Graphic Generators and Simulations

Year: 1998

Authors: Mark Schuetz, Thomas King

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

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Development of a Modular, Immersive/Semi-Immersive System for Simulation of Ship-to-Shore Causeway Lighterage

Year: 1998

Authors: Gregory Opas, Frank Leban

Abstract:

This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary operational evaluation of the Advanced Lighterage Simulator, a dual use system developed by Advanced Marine Enterprises under contract to Carderock Division Naval Surface Warfare Center. The primary use of the Advanced Lighter Simulator (ALS) is engineering evaluation of new or modified lighters and their associated systems, with the secondary purpose of training of lighter pilots and coxswains in a realistic sea state environment. The present effort was to develop a prototype system from which to generate a performance specification for procurement of a followon system with the features necessary to train lighter pilots and coxswains in the full operational envelope of the existing and developmental lighter systems.

To meet the project objectives and provide a clear avenue for enhancements as technology progresses, the simulator has been implemented with a modular, flexible open-system design, based on commercial-off-the-shelf technology. Advanced Marine Enterprises' Virtual Ship7 software system provides the baseline hydrodynamics, visual scene generation, and simulation control capabilities. For the Advanced Lighter Simulation project, a number of enhancements to the hydrodynamics modeling and the visual scene representation have been added.

A significant feature of the system is visual scene generation and presentation through two head mounted displays (HMDs), one of which is fully immersive, the other which is semi-immersive. The trainee in the semiimmersive HMD interacts simultaneously with both the visual scene presented in the virtual environment, and with physical controls located in a simulated coxswain's cab. Meanwhile, the pilot trainee in the fully immersive HMD interacts with the visual scene presented in the virtual environment, and in turn appears in the visual scene presented to the coxswain trainee. This effect is brought about by the use of an avatar driven by two additional channels of motion tracking to provide cues regarding hand/arm signals made by the fully immersed trainee to the semi-immersed trainee in the coxswain's cab.

Other salient features of the system include: a 6-DOF electric motion base which can be implemented at either student station, the use of a joystick for controlling the position of the immersed student's eyepoint/avatar location, and the use of reconfigurable touch sensitive screens as part of the physical console control.

The paper chronicles the key decisions made in the design and development of the prototype system with feedback from the prospective end-users on the utility of certain system features for this application.

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