Found 93 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1997
Conceptual Models for WARSIM 2000

Year: 1997

Authors: Lee Lacy, Larry O'Brien

Abstract:

Constructive simulation development requires representing the "real world" which consists of the environment, entities, and tasks. Historically, descriptions of the subject domain have been directly implemented into the simulation. However, the process of repeating this analysis for each new simulation has not proven to be a cost efficient approach.

Conceptual models are first-level abstractions of the simulation's domain. Developing conceptual models results in an implementation-independent repository which can be used by simulation developers that lack domain knowledge. The development of conceptual models requires a knowledge development process, similar to the software development process. The execution of this process results in quality knowledge representation products. These knowledge development products can be validated to insure that they correctly represent the problem domain. The use of the conceptual model in the development of the simulation can be verified through traceability.

A conceptual model called the Functional Description of the Battlespace (FDB) is being developed for the U. S. Army's Warfighter 2000 (WARSIM) system. The bulk of the FDB is made up of behavioral representations used to develop computer generated forces. Behavioral descriptions closely mirror the objects found in the Army domain: units, missions, and tasks. Other critical representations include equipment and the simulated physical environment.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
What Management and Trainers Should Know About Training

Year: 1997

Author: David Hosley

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Vrml 2.0 As a Format for Real Time Visual Simulation

Year: 1997

Author: Andrew Bushnell

Abstract: The World Wide Web as a colorful extension to the Internet has exploded in popularity over the past few years. This has proved to be a catalyst for the development of many new and exciting technologies. One of these technologies is the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML, pronounced vurmel). This paper fully analyzes the VRML 2.0 specification, including the action and behavior Nodes, and gauge its applicability to the real time simulation arena. VRML has matured at version 2.0 into a comprehensive scene description language complete with geometry, attributes and behaviors. VRML was designed to efficiently represent a 3D scene within a standard web browser. The problems that a VRML database must contend with, such as low transmission bandwidth and poor host graphics processing capabilities, have forced the designers of VRML to optimize the format in terms of size, content and performance - trying not to sacrifice power and flexibility. These very constraints are similar (at an individual object level) with those required in the visual simulation market. Models still must be a faithful representations of the real thing - but with minimal polygon counts and extensive use of photo-realistic textures. The only difference between the bandwidth-constrained web and a typical DIS scenario is that the visual simulation scenes are typically much richer in content with over 100 simultaneous objects being common. The application of VRML for visual simulation has been helped by the fact that VRML has borrowed many concepts from existing real time database formats and Image Generators. These include 3D geometry and property definition, level of detail (LODs), billboards, lighting, sound, weather effects and much more. VRML also allows complex algorithmic control so behavior can be embedded within the file format - allowing VRML objects to understand the world in which they exist and react to it in a consistent manner.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Reconfigurable Crew Compartment Development Simulator for Research, Development and Acquisition

Year: 1997

Authors: Dirk Schmidt, Wolfgang Bender

Abstract:

Fighting vehicles have been traditionally designed in such a way, that the crew fit into the space which remained after the integration of a vehicle's main subsystems (engine, turret, main gun and sight system). This has resulted in crew station designs which stress the soldier through high subsystem noise levels, vibrations, fatiguing sitting positions and a high number of controls and display elements. While ergonomics (man-machine interface) issues are increasingly being considered as important in vehicle designs, the next generation of fighting vehicles will operate with a reduced crew. This will require not only stronger consideration of man-machine interface, but the complete optimization of the crew compartment as an equally important vehicle subsystem. Two-man-crew operated vehicles will, in particular, require each of the crew members to be able to perform all functions including the ability to drive, operate and fight. In the future, the vehicle will probably need to be designed around the optimized crew compartment. Simulation, properly applied, appears to ideally support the optimization of crew stations at a cost and within a schedule that is affordable and acceptable.

Towards this end, the German Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB) has started a project which will support the development of new fighting vehicles and the combat improvement of existing vehicles by making use of modern simulation technology. Under the program name Reconfigurable Crew Compartment Development Simulator (RKES = Rekonfigurierbarer Kampfraum-Entwicklungs-Simulator), a simulator is being developed which can be reconfigured to different types of vehicles (e.g. main battle tank and infantry fighting vehicle) within minutes. Crew stations can be reconfigured on-the-fly to different functionalities (e.g. driving, commanding, fighting etc.).

The simulator consists of: 1) single crew stations which can be arranged to complex weapon systems, 2) a tool kit with different control elements, including buttons, pedals, control grips, track balls, and 3) display elements for monitors, panels, and other items. The vehicle simulator supports the basic functions (accelerate, brake, slew, point, shoot, etc.) which can be assigned to specific control elements and displays by a menu of the configuration software package. The simulator is DIS compliant and can be used in a complex war fighting environment. A control station can provide computer generated intelligent forces. With this simulator the man-machine-interface and the human performance can be optimized. The paper describes the Reconfigurable Crew Compartment Development Simulator and discusses cost & benefit aspects of the simulator.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Sea Stories: A Collaborative Tool for Articulating Tactical Knowledge

Year: 1997

Authors: Paul Radtke, Paul Frey

Abstract: Among the more difficult and time-consuming steps in the training development process is the elicitation from subject matter experts (SMEs) of the skills and knowledge to be taught. As the use of advanced multimedia training technology has become more common, training development increasingly involves translating SME knowledge into appropriate media representations. This paper describes a procedure for identifying specific tactical decision making (TDM) knowledge requirements, and possible media-based representations of that knowledge. The intent of this procedure is to provide the basis for constructing tactical training documents using multimedia technology. The procedure, called Sea Stories, is built around the construction and analysis of a scenario by one or more SMEs. Sea Stories allows a team of domain experts to "articulate" their knowledge by describing a scenario (their sea story) in a series of computer-based storyboards. These storyboards include, for example, spatial situation overviews, team interaction diagrams, task flow charts, and equipment diagrams; and are integrated though a detailed timeline. Applied training research provides knowledge frameworks that can be used to guide and prompt experts to identify and refine components of the knowledge. The storyboards provide the basis for identifying these knowledge requirements, and the media representations that are associated with a tactical problem. Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) technologies facilitate communication among groups of subject matter experts using annotation techniques and revision control and tracking.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
A Low Cost Holographic Heads Up Display for Aircraft Simulation

Year: 1997

Authors: Dennis Joseph, Tracy Brown, Ronald Hegg, David Dion

Abstract: The paper presents a low cost Heads Up Display (HUD) which was specifically developed to support multiple configurations of high fidelity flight simulators. It begins by discussing the basic requirements for HUD simulation, from presentation of the HUD image to replication of the combining optics. The paper presents the traditional high fidelity approaches, e.g. using modified aircraft devices, typically the highest cost approach but providing the highest fidelity and realism, and superposition of the HUD imagery on the Out-the-Window visual scene, which is the lowest cost approach and provides the lowest level of realism. Problems, complications, advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are discussed. The paper then describes the HUD device that was recently developed by HTI specifically for simulator applications. It discusses the reasoning for developing such a device and the design criteria used. The system diagram and major components are presented which include: holographic combiner, optical system, high resolution raster scan monitor, pilot control panel, and mechanical housing. The design considerations for tailoring the device to different simulation requirements such as field of view (e.g. LANTIRN HUD, WAC HUD, etc.), collimation distance, and mechanical presentation are presented. A photograph of a production device is provided. Performance characteristics including field of view, brightness, contrast, resolution, and viewing volume are presented along with other characteristics such as video interface and weight. Finally, a comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of all three approaches is presented.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Aegis' Expanding Training: Enabling Team, Fleet, and Joint Simulations

Year: 1997

Authors: Neil Lauver, Warren Jones

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Natural Language Processing in Virtual Reality Training Environments

Year: 1997

Authors: Curry Guinn, R. Montoya

Abstract:

Technological advances in areas such as transportation, communications, and science are rapidly changing our world-the rate of change will only increase in the 21st century. Innovations in training will be needed to meet these new requirements. Not only must soldiers and workers become proficient in using these new technologies, but shrinking manpower requires more cross-training, self-paced training, and distance learning. Two key technologies that can help reduce the burden on instructors and increase the efficiency and independence of trainees are virtual reality simulators and natural language processing. This paper focuses on the design of a virtual reality trainer that uses a spoken natural language interface with the trainee.

RTI has developed the Advanced Maintenance Assistant and Trainer (AMAT) with ACT II funding for the Army Combat Service Support (CSS) Battlelab. AMAT integrates spoken language processing, virtual reality, multimedia and instructional technologies to train and assist the turret mechanic in diagnosing and maintenance on the M1A1 Abrams Tank in a hands-busy, eyes-busy environment. AMAT is a technology concept demonstration and an extension to RTI's Virtual Maintenance Trainer (VMAT) which was developed for training National Guard organizational mechanics. VMAT is currently deployed in a number of National Guard training facilities. The AMAT project demonstrates the integration of spoken human-machine dialogue with visual virtual reality in implementing intelligent assistant and training systems. To accomplish this goal, RTI researchers have implemented the following features:

• Speech recognition on a Pentium-based PC,

• Error correcting parsers that can correctly handle utterances that are outside of the grammar,

• Dynamic natural language grammars that change as the situation context changes,

• Spoken message interpretation that can resolve pronoun usage and incomplete sentences,

• Spoken message reliability processing that allows AMAT to compute the likelihood that it properly understood the trainee (This score can be used to ask for repeats or confirmations.),

• Goal-driven dialogue behavior so that the computer is directing the conversation to satisfy either the user-defined or computer-defined objectives,

• Voice-activated movement in the virtual environment, and

• Voice synthesis on a Pentium-based PC.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Evaluation and Assessment of A Virtual Environment Advanced Technology Demonstrator

Year: 1997

Authors: Sarina Goodman, Susan Porter, Randall Standridge

Abstract:

There are several systems currently under development which allow the individual combatant to participate in force-on-force distributed simulation. Although the simulations are interesting and show great promise, there have been few investigations into the transfer of training from these simulations to real-world tasks.

The Team Tactical Engagement Simulator (TTES) Advanced Technology Demonstrator (ATD) is a distributive interactive simulation-compliant ATD which provides the capability for US Marine Corps deployed, reinforced rifle squads to participate in force-on-force engagements against computercontrolled hostiles in a virtual environment. The system allows trainees to practice team tactics and decision-making skills by providing the ability to traverse the virtual environment together with other trainees, use a variety of weapons, and engage simulated hostiles and neutrals.

TTES underwent an Early Operational Assessment (EOA) in April 1997. The purpose of this EOA was to investigate the utility of the TTES system as a training device for military operations on urban terrain (MOUT), to gather information from the user community to provide future direction in TTES system development, and to gather program evaluation data and TTES system design information.

This paper will briefly define virtual environment (VE) training and the associated research. An explanation of the TTES components is provided. Included is a discussion of relevant findings and recommendations applicable to TTES and other individual combatant simulators, as well as ideas for future VE research.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login
Darpa Stow Synthetic Environments

Year: 1997

Author: George Lukes

Abstract:

The Synthetic Environments (SE) Program, a technology component of DARPA's Synthetic Theater of War (STOW) initiative, has developed novel technology to create and use digital battlespaces of increasing size, fidelity and complexity needed for large-scale distributed simulation at the Joint Task Force level. The technical objective was to model tactically significant battlefield detail and phenomenology that impact the performance and behavior of entity-level combat platforms, sensors and weapons (e.g., tanks, helicopters, ships, missiles, rounds). The developmental strategy was grounded on the transformation and rationalization of operational terrain, bathymetric, meteorological and oceanographic data products into an integrated environmental data base and the adaptation of environmental models to real-time operations.

Considerable progress has been achieved in a period of three years. The spatial extents of STOW environmental data bases have been systematically extended to support combined air, amphibious, ground, naval and special operations over large areas with geodetic rigor. Internally, 3D spatial topology has been developed to support multiple elevation surfaces including ocean surface and ocean floor, bridges, tunnels and multistory buildings. Mechanisms to represent and distribute dynamic meteorological and atmospheric fields have been incorporated into the synthetic battlespace.

Where the STOW Europe synthetic environment of 1994 was a static benign world populated by dynamic warfighters, the STOW 97 synthetic environment featured dynamic natural effects (e.g., time-of-day, wind, rain, fog, dust) as well as man-made environmental effects (e.g., smoke, flares, destroyed bridges and buildings). Progress in dynamic terrain, one of the most difficult issues in distributed simulation, has been exceptional to include terrain cratering. Real-world weather has now been introduced into distributed simulation within an architecture that support execution of nested feature and effects models.

Downloads are free for the duration of 2018. Log in with you account to download! Register or Login