Found 84 Papers
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Volume 1996
CIG Scene Realism: The World Tomorrow

Year: 1996

Authors: Michael Cosman, Robert Grange

Abstract: In recent years there have been remarkable advances in the rendering of realistic imagery by sophisticated software running on ultra-high-performance compute engines. Technology now makes it possible to incorporate these exotic lighting, shading, and texturing processes into a true realtime computer image generation (CIG) system. This paper reports on work being done to combine advanced rendering algorithms and historical simulation capabilities into a new open system that provides the best of both worlds. Particular emphasis is given to improving edge quality, texture sharpness, lighting and shading flexibility, and the way both opaque and transparent surfaces interact in a dynamic visual scene. The system incorporates many new rendering capabilities that have never before been accelerated in hardware. Higher performance, lower development and recurring costs, and widely scaleable price and performance can be achieved through adoption of industry standards in processors, operating systems, and graphics application program interfaces (APIs). A modular approach allows system configurations for workstation or image generator applications.

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Two-Way CBS-to-DIS Linkage

Year: 1996

Authors: Gregory Wenzel, James Blake

Abstract: Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) protocols and standards are being used to enhance the fidelity of the military's family of training models and simulations. This paper will discuss a two-way interface between the Army's Corps Battle Simulation (CBS) and the Extended Air Defesse Simulation (EADSIM) using DIS Protocol Data Units (PDUs). EADSIM is a high fidelity analytic model used by the Services. At the theater level, CBS is integrated with the other Services' models via the Aggregate Level Simulation Protocol (ALSP) to form the Joint Training Confederation (JTC). The basic approach was to develop the ability for EADSIM to play through the CBS model and thus enable both stand-alone CBS and JTC interactions, as the needs of the training audience dictate. The Prairie Warrior '96 exercise demonstrated the use of this concept to focus Army assets on the Theater Missile Defense (TMD) mission. The careful evaluation of the timing constraints required to have the two very different models interoperate was central to the development of the two-way interface since major changes to either of the two models would have been cost prohibitive.

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Verification, Validation and Accreditation of the Close Combat Tactical Trainer: A Practical Application of the VV&A Process

Year: 1996

Authors: Robert Wright, Jeffrey Browning

Abstract: The requirements for Army model and simulation (M&S) program verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) are outlined in AR 5-11 and DA Pam 5-11. The Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) is the first major Army Training M&S Program to undergo the rigors of these regulations. This paper reports on the procedures used to develop the CCTT VV&A program. The paper discusses the various agencies involved, the tests to be conducted, the tools to be used in the VV&A process and the importance of traceability. The paper also compares the VV&A process developed for CCTT to the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) 9-Step VV&A process.

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Integrating Exercise Control and Feedback Systems in DIS

Year: 1996

Authors: Larry Meliza, Benjamin Paz

Abstract: Trainers for collective exercises control the exercise by manipulating mission, enemy, terrain, troop, and time (METT-T) situation variables to support a training or exercise objective. The feedback system must then examine the performance of a unit as a function of the evolving METT-T situation. Integration of exercise control and feedback functions is necessary to reduce and simplify the workload of trainers and to make sure exercise control and feedback systems are mutually supportive. Integration is especially crucial in the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) environment for two reasons. First, efficient use of training resources requires substantial temporal overlap and competition between exercise control and feedback functions to provide rapid feedback. Second, the exercise control function expands to include controlling the behavior of enemy and friendly computer generated forces (CGF). This paper describes current problems integrating state of the art exercise control and feedback systems in the DIS environment and presents potential solutions requiring research and development.

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A "System of Systems" Joint Training, Analysis, and Simulation Center (JTASC)

Year: 1996

Authors: Gregory Knapp, J. Reed

Abstract:

This paper describes the total training system developed for fulfilling the United States Atlantic Command's (USACOM's) JTASC mission to:

• Develop, execute and assess distributed joint training and simulation exercises;

• Integrate and rehearse assigned forces for worldwide employment in actual crisis;

• Provide planning facilities and a command post for joint task force commanders and staffs engaged in exercises and crisis rehearsals;

• Assess joint operational readiness of assigned forces; and,

• Provide a laboratory for demonstration and assessment of technologies, systems, doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

The synthetic environment necessary to meet the JTASC mission has been created by integrating C4I, training, modeling, and simulation into an interoperable system. While the primary JTASC mission is designed to support Tier III Joint Commander Operational Training, this system of systems is fully capable of supporting Tier II exercises. Highlights are as follows:

• Information Systems - 2500 users, 60 miles of fiber optic cabling, TCP/IP LANs, collaborative workflow, document management, digital library, multimedia storage and retrieval, worldwide accessibility.

• Information Transfer - SONET transport links tactical circuits, DISN-LES, SIPRNET, DSI, Internet, Radio and/or satellite up/down links including DBS.

• Training and analysis - electronic classrooms, distance learning, desktop VTC, video conferencing and video production.

• Modeling and simulation - Aggregate Level Simulation Protocols, decision support systems, debriefing systems, AAR.

• C4 - Operational Joint Operations Center, Joint Intelligence Center, 140 GCCS workstations.

• Intelligence - complete intelligence capability.

A systems engineering approach, rapid COTS insertion, and open system architecture principles quickly accommodate new developments, system reconfiguration, and system upgrades. Advanced technologies allow the creation of virtual warfare at the command level C4I interface. The resulting "system of systems" provides a baseline which supports rapid capability expansion, new technology insertion, technology reuse, and a model for other projects seeking a total system solution.

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The Development of a Multimedia CBT System for RAF Tristar Training

Year: 1996

Authors: L Trask, L Hutchinson

Abstract:

Shortly after the Falklands War the Royal Air Force (RAF) acquired a fleet of 9 Lockheed L1011-500 TriStar aircraft for use in the Air-to-Air Refuelling and Air Transport roles. Most of these aircraft were purchased from British Airways (BA), who have also provided training facilities for RAF TriStar aircrew to the present day. However, a new RAF TriStar flight simulator will enter service during Nov 96 and BA training will then cease. A Course Design Team (CDT) was therefore formed in Apr 94 to produce all associated courseware for an RAF TriStar training course.

After carrying out a training needs analysis, the CDT decided that Computer Based Training (CBT) would be the most appropriate and cost effective instructional strategy for TriStar technical training. However, the limited time and resources available for the project made it impossible to use a civilian contractor to produce the CBT lessons. The Team therefore decided to produce their own CBT course using a range of commercially available software for PC computers. The project is now well advanced and progressing on schedule.

This paper describes how the CDT specified the hardware and software suite on which the courseware was to be developed and deployed. It goes on to explain how the courseware standards and guidelines evolved. The method of production will be outlined and the final format of delivery will be explained. The problems encountered will be detailed, as will the techniques used to overcome them. Finally, the paper aims to show that a small team can successfully produce an effective multimedia CBT system within tight deadlines and constraints.

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Automated Prescriptive Assessments And Interactive Distance Learning

Year: 1996

Author: Wiley Boland

Abstract: Distance learning technology provides the capability to reach multiple, distant, and geographically-dispersed locations with high-quality, real-time instruction. Interactivity improves comprehension and serves as a catalyst for effective learning when coupled with competent design and multimedia. This paper discusses combining the promises of distance learning and interactivity as the basis for an automated prescriptive assessment process. Participants in the United States Atlantic Command's UNIFIED ENDEAVOR exercises attend a relevant curriculum of seminars. They arrive with varying knowledge and experience levels in the processes and procedures associated with the effective functioning of a Joint Task Force Headquarters staff. An automated assessment process will determine individual needs and prescribe tailored curricula and courseware products. Properly focused interactive multimedia courseware can significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of distance learning to meet training requirements.

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Increasing Speed and Flexibility of Feedback Systems for DIS Exercises

Year: 1996

Authors: Larry Meliza, Bill Brown

Abstract: The After Action Review (AAR) is an interactive discussion intended to help Army units decide what happened during an exercise, decide why it happened, and identify potential corrective actions. An AAR system may facilitate this process by providing aids that portray exercise events (ground truth) from a variety of perspectives. One of the major challenges of an AAR system is that of providing appropriate AAR aids within about ten minutes after exercises conducted in the distributed interactive simulation (DIS) environment. A second challenge is to provide the flexibility necessary to adapt the AAR aids to the results of a specific exercise. The Automated Training Analysis and Feedback System (ATAFS) was developed to help trainers prepare AAR aids as soon as possible after the end of an exercise, by, in part, the application of a knowledge database to support automatic generation of candidate AAR aids. This paper describes the AAR process, the workload of trainers, the ATAFS approach to assisting trainers, and the strengths and shortfalls of this approach.

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High-Resolution Terrain Database Issues In Distributed Interactive Simulations

Year: 1996

Authors: James Hereford, Duane Moffitt

Abstract: The resolution of terrain databases has improved markedly over the past few years and will continue to improve. The increase in resolution can be attributed primarily to the availability of narrow field-of-view, high-resolution sensors to gather data and large memory computers to process and store the data. However, the use of high-resolution (30 meter or less) terrain databases in distributed interactive simulations can cause some counter-intuitive and erroneous results. For example, a recent study showed that cruise missile detection is affected by the amount of thinning of the terrain. The erroneous results are caused by several issues, some of which are inherent to the data but some of which can be solved through proper pre-processing of the data and careful construction of the terrain database. The primary issues discussed in this paper are (i) the complexity involved in using high resolution data, (ii) limited display size that affects visual terrain representation, (iii) data accuracy, as well as data resolution, must be taken into account, and (iv) proper resampling techniques to achieve a desired database resolution. This paper discusses these issues as well as defines a new figure-of-merit for simulations to insure effective training.

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Improving the Acquisition Process Using Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS)

Year: 1996

Author: Sebastiano DeLiso

Abstract: The current DOD acquisition process is under intense scrutiny and it is widely held that the process needs to be improved. Continuing down-sizing of military personnel and shrinking DOD budgets makes improvements imperative. Improvements to acquisition decision-making are what is needed. This requires resolution of two crucial flaws to the current process: limited operator involvement early in the process, and single weapon system development focus. Fortunately, the recent proliferation of the use of Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) has evolved it into a viable tool for the acquisition community. Although the use of simulation in the acquisition community is not mandated, it is being used by a few acquisition customers. These customers have already benefited from these acquisition-related simulations. Some major benefits thus far have been early determination of need, evaluation of system utility and optimization of functional requirements, well prior to expenditure of significant development efforts. Also, early operator involvement has facilitated Concept of Operations definition, optimizing Man Machine Interfaces, and ultimately expediting new weapon systems "fit" into the overall battlefield architecture. Formally integrating ADS into the acquisition process would provide even more benefits to the acquisition community and accelerate advancement of the art/science of ADS. Implementing this integration has some challenges, it would require: more joint-level decision making, earlier/increased operational community support, and changes in ADS and the ADS community. However, the enormous benefits to the acquisition and ADS communities, and ultimately our warfighters far outweigh these challenges.

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