Found 95 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1994
ARPA Reconfigurable Simulator Initiative (ARSI)

Year: 1994

Authors: Duke Buster, Jim King

Abstract:

ARSI is a low cost, Distributed Interactive Simulator (DIS)-compliant simulation that can easily change shape into different vehicles. ARPA will use ARSI to explore the viability of such simulators for training and the research, development, and evaluation of future vehicle concepts. We contend that a single reconfigurable simulator will maintain the required fidelity and be less expensive than a collection of single configuration simulators.

ARSI has five areas of configurability: mechanical enclosure, distribution of simulation functions, crew/vehicle interface, tactical interaction with other vehicles, and scenario / battlefield database. The keys to easy configuration are a flexible "core" from which hardware and software modules can be hung, and emphasizing the use of models whose behaviors are table-driven or parameter-driven. The baseline ARSI program will deliver this "reconfigurable core" and modules for five vehicle configurations: M1A1 Abrams, M1A2 Abrams, M2A1 Bradley, M2A2 Bradley, and HMMWV scout.

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Dynamic Latency Measurement Using the Simulator Network Analysis Project (SNAP)

Year: 1994

Authors: Richard Bryant, D. Douglass, Ronald Ewart, Gary Slutz

Abstract:

The purpose of the Simulator Network Analysis Project (SNAP) is to develop networked simulation analysis hardware which measures network delays and simulator accuracies. Latencies introduced by simulations affect the research and training value of the simulator. Critical tasks such as handling qualities evaluations can only be accomplished on high fidelity simulations with very short time delays. In order to be an effective simulation, the pilot's stick input must cause the proper time phased responses from the aircraft's simulated instrumentation, motion base, and visual displays. The introduction of additional time delays between networked simulators, due to line communication links and protocol hardware, reduces the types of tasks which can be accomplished. A thorough understanding of the end-to-end simulation time delays is required to know what types of tasks can be accomplished on the simulation network.

The SNAP hardware and software consists of portable test units which can be located at two or more simulator network nodes. These units have the capability to accurately record and correlate, raw pilot inputs such as stick position, instrumentation, simulation states, network PDUs (Protocol Data Units) and visual display parameters. Each SNAP unit records data at its simulation nodes; the data is time stamped using GPS (Global Positioning System) clocks for subsequent correlation. SNAP provides the unique capability of correlating the inputs of a pilot at one simulation site to the perception of those actions at a second site. SNAP also measures the display attitude and aircraft target position directly from the video going into the pilot's display using an Electronic Visual Display Attitude Sensor (EVDAS).

This paper discusses the development of the SNAP simulator analysis tool as well as experiments and results of the use of the tool on an existing simulator network. Techniques for using SNAP as a simulation verification tool are discussed. Future applications of the tool are proposed.

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Providing Military Occupational Training Using Community Colleges and Video Teletraining

Year: 1994

Authors: Neill Foshee, Barbara Martin

Abstract:

The need for increased training has prompted the military services, industry and academia to research several different distance education strategies (i.e. courses of instruction packaged for delivery of remote locations), including video teletraining (VIT). Two of the key reasons the military is exploring new methods of distributed training are the size and importance of the reserve components (RC) and continuing reductions in military training budgets. Since RC personnel are only available for an equivalent of 48 training days a year, less expensive, more accessible training methods must be found for reclassifying RC personnel in their occupational specialties.

The purpose of this research effort was to assess the feasibility of using two-year community colleges to offer military courses to RC and active component personnel using a two-way audio and video teletraining system. Five courses were reconfigured for delivery on the U.S. Army Teletraining Network (TNET). Three U.S. Army Reserve Component Configured Courses (RC3) and two U.S. Navy special topics courses were presented during a four month period in late 1992 and early 1993.

The courses were evaluated on the basis of student performance on standard military proficiency tests and 40 other data gathering instruments. The research demonstrated that VIT is a reliable and effective means for delivering training to military personnel. The VIT approach appears to be acceptable to both students and instructors. Furthermore, the results of the quantitative and self-report data indicate that the VIT instruction was successful in helping students master the learning objectives. The findings also support the premise that community colleges can effectively develop and deliver occupational training to the military.

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Adventure Games for Technical Education

Year: 1994

Author: Henry Halff

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of adventure games for technical and scientific education. The topics most appropriate for instruction via adventure games are those such as chemistry and physics that require knowledge of abstract concepts and mastery of advanced problem-solving skills. Adventure games that teach such topics can be constructed as a network of rooms in which each room represents a concept or skill and the paths among the rooms reflect the conceptual structure of the subject matter. Each room offers the player an opportunity to practice the focus skill or explore the focus concept for the room. Ancillary support for learning can be provided via conventional computer- or text-based instruction, hypertext, and visualization techniques.

Games of this sort offer signal advantages over conventional computer-based or classroom instruction. Their motivational advantages are clear. Properly constructed they allow the student to conceptualize the structure of the subject matter in terms of the game topology, thus bringing the power of spatial cognition to bear on the difficult task of conceptual organization. The adventure environment can immerse the student in the subject matter in a way that is often impossible in the real world. Instructional exercises can be focused on critical learning objectives thus increasing time on task. Instruction can be adaptive so that students devote only the time needed to master the subject matter. Visualization techniques can be used to convey difficult abstract concepts.

Cost effective development of computer games can only be accomplished if the dual nature (instruction and entertainment) is recognized. The market for instructional adventure games is often not the same as the market for commercial games. Special mechanisms (e.g., hypertext) are required to meet instructional objectives. Prototypes and other mechanisms needed to ensure that instructional methods and content are effective.

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Lessons Learned in Developing Multiuse Simulation For F-22

Year: 1994

Authors: Dorothy Baldwin, James Gault, Stephen Zimmel

Abstract:

Multiuse Simulations are even more critical in light of current budget constraints. Early planning during F-22 development has provided a unique opportunity to maximize simulation synergism across an entire Weapon System. Via Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), the Air Vehicle, the Support System, and the Training System are being developed concurrently. Potential simulations for REUSE by the Training System were identified early to be able to incorporate training requirements into Air Vehicle and Engineering lab developments.

This paper describes "Lessons Learned" in developing simulations to satisfy multiple engineering laboratory and training requirements and also provides examples of specific cases where Training System personnel have acted as "integrators" between various Air Vehicle IPTs.

A good example is the development of the Flight Dynamics Simulation (FDS). FDS has completed Preliminary Design Review (PDR), Critical Design Review (CDR), coding, integration and testing, and will be operational in the Vehicle Management System (VMS) Integration Facility (a full-up pilot-in-the-loop engineering flight simulator) by the time this paper is presented. All potential users, including training system personnel, were involved in requirements, review, and approval cycles. All identified training requirements have been met. Examples are given of how FDS development "Lessons Learned" have been shared with other REUSE engineering simulation developers.

Challenges that lie ahead and the processes being put in place include (1) how to develop a robust, flexible design based on early requirements that we know will change, i.e., how to incorporate REUSE simulations into the final media that result from Instructional System Development (ISD) and provide these REUSE simulations to the ultimate training simulator designer and integrator and (2) how to update the REUSE simulations during the Weapon System life-cycle while satisfying the requirements of diverse users.

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Impact of Total Training System Acquisition on Instructional System Development

Year: 1994

Author: Conrad Bills

Abstract: Traditionally, the Instructional System Development (ISD) process was applied for creating instruction in a classroom or a learning center. Historically, ISD grew out of a systems engineering methodology applied in development of self-paced programmed instruction. Successful programmed instruction resulted from a systematic development process. The system engineering concept provided a model for input, output, process, and feedback loop. The application of ISD to total training system acquisition brought a new perspective, the instructional system infrastructure. Toplevel training system functions were identified and included in the systematic development model. The analysis phase was expanded to include functional analysis. The process for designing to function incorporated tools used in total quality management. This paper presents the impact of the expanded total training system perspective on the ISD process.

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Resource Trade-Offs for Avcatt Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer

Year: 1994

Author: Alan Keller

Abstract:

In times of acquisition budget constraint, we must show realistic trade-offs to justify future simulators. The Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer (AVCATT) will permit critical collective training in exchange for minimal operating tempo (OPTEMPO) tradeoff. Three approaches to determining resource trade-offs are presented: the Augmentation Approach, Futuristic Approach, and the Budget Constraint Approach. The break-even cost analysis for the Budget Constraint Approach reflects that AVCATT could pay for itself during its life cycle in exchange for an OPTEMPO trade-off of approximately one flying hour per crew per month. This tradeoff translates to 26 operating hours of AVCATT per crew per month. Prior to deploying for "Operation Desert Storm," crews from the AH-64 Apache and OH-58 Kiowa equipped 2/229th, Attack Helicopter Battalion (ATKHB) trained gunnery and battle drill tasks in the Apache Combat Mission Simulator (CMS). Also during this time, companies trained combined arms collective tasks in eight reconfigurable simulators that were networked to form a collective training system. Using the collective training system, the company commanders were able to gain valuable unit cohesion before going into combat. In this scenario, the concept of simulation-based collective training passed the ultimate test-that of actual warfighting! The results of reconfigurable cockpit training experiments can be added to the Desert Storm evidence. Experiments involving 361 aviation officers reflect a need for a company level, combined arms collective training system, accessible to each battalion. During a time of defense budget constraints, the cost effectiveness of reconfigurable cockpits and reusable software must be considered in future acquisition strategies. Specifically, when the AVCATT acquisition effort comes before the scrutiny of milestone decision review officials, monetary savings and cost avoidances can be achieved by taking advantage of new simulation technologies. The time has come for not only accepting the cost and training quality benefits of simulation, but to also consider the AVCATT for both combined arms collective training and individual sustainment training.

Personal Biography: Mr. Keller is assigned to Headquarters, Directorate of Training, Doctrine, and Simulation, Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362. Phone: (205) 255-3096. A retired Army Major, he has held a variety of Special Forces and Airborne command and staff positions. His degrees are: B.S. in Management, University of Alabama; M.B.A. in Finance, Troy State University.

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Use of "Off-the-Shelf" Application Software for Instructional Systems Development

Year: 1994

Authors: Mark Stevens, Gregory Davis

Abstract:

Unlike many training systems that were developed after a weapon system had reached design maturity or even after it was fielded, the F-22 Training System was tasked to be developed concurrent with the weapon system design. Additionally, the F-22 Training System Development Team was challenged to be innovative, look into the future, not accept "non value added effort," to be cost effective and develop an integrated training system. This brought unique analysis requirements. Database and analysis support software was required that could grow with the system, respond to changes in emphasis, data formats and contents, provide insight into the analysis and technical performance, and manage the analysis effort.

A review of existing database and analysis support software built specifically for Instructional Systems Development (ISD) found that none fully met the needs of the program and supported both the pilot and maintenance analysis efforts. It was found, however, that personal computer application software had matured to the point where special purpose software applications could quickly be assembled without special purpose coding, providing a responsive, and cost effective means of managing the analysis effort.

Using the same general ISD analysis methodology, both the pilot and maintenance analysts used "off-the-shelf" software products to acquire, store, manipulate and present analysis data. The major categories of applications included 1) database management 2) decision support, 3) analysis support, and 4) program management tools. We present the results of our efforts to create an integrated local area network environment using commercially available software including software selected, the adaptations we made, and the lessons we have learned to date.

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Dynamic Multicast on Asynchronous Transfer Mode for Distributed Interactive Simulation

Year: 1994

Author: Thomas Gehl

Abstract:

The concept of Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) needs advanced network technologies and services to communicate real-time state updates between autonomous simulators. The network architecture, consisting of these technologies and services, must provide high throughput messaging between multiple peer simulators that create the virtual environment. As the number of entities in the virtual environment increases, the message throughput becomes a major performance issue. Recently, scalability estimates and analysis have been performed as to how to handle tens of thousands (up to 100,000) of entities in a distributed interactive simulation scenario. Filtering techniques have been studied to determine how the message interaction between the distributed simulators can be reduced. These filtering techniques need to be performed, as appropriate, with commercially available network services to ease interoperability and enable migration to future technologies.

This paper discusses an architecture that incorporates dynamic multicast over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) to reduce the state update traffic between the distributed simulators. In discussing a dynamic multicast approach, the DIS multicast requirements of multipoint communication, group addressing, group definition, group membership, and group change rate are defined. These requirements are then applied to a network architecture consisting of a baseline topology and functional capabilities. Finally, the method of scaling DIS applications up to 100,000 interactive entities through the integration of the proposed network technologies and services is presented.

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Training Exercise Planning: Leveraging Technologies and Data

Year: 1994

Authors: Mona Crissey, George Stone, David Briggs, Mansooreh Mollaghasemi

Abstract: Recognizing that future battlefield training and preparation for "other than war" missions will rely more and more on simulators and simulations, unit commanders must incorporate new ways to efficiently use their limited resources to develop effective training plans. Currently, commanders spend hours referring to training and field manuals, training records, unit standard operating procedures end directives to develop how best to train under resource-declining conditions and limited training opportunities. Innovative methodologies must be applied to the planning process to match essential task lists against proper training resources. Also, assessments of previous training events must be fully integrated into the planning process to ensure a unit learns, and returns to train at a higher state of readiness. This paper describes a technology demonstration program being developed by Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) called Combined Arms Tactical Trainer Training Exercise Development System (CATT TREDS). The system will provide unit commanders with an intelligent decision support tool to save planning time, enhance unit training options, and automatically apply after-action review feedback in a process applicable to planning maneuver, combat support, and combat service support training, as well as, military operations other than war exercises. Some state-of-the-art technologies such as expert systems, multi-criteria decision making, voice recognition, and neural networks have been investigated for their use, adaptability, and applicability for the tool. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software packages with capabilities to link applications in an object-oriented, intuitively user-friendly manner have been evaluated. Leveraging capabilities inherent in these technologies, software packages, and previously developed databases shows great promise for development of a tool allowing unit commanders to optimize training exercise planning time.

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