Found 65 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1990
Pilot Training for the European Fighter Aircraft - Getting it Right

Year: 1990

Author: Alan Parfitt

Abstract:

EFA is the first major RAF aircraft programme where training issues have been systematically addressed from an early stage. Analysis studies, using Government and Contractor effort, have been conducted to define EFA pilot training needs and identify and assess options for meeting them.

The studies have, provided means for generating a series of Training Packages. For each Package the contribution made by aircraft hours and synthetic training devices has been determined and the Package evaluated in terms of resource needs, training effectiveness and likely user acceptance.

Results are being used, to assist RAF decisions on the shape of the final training package and during discussions with EFA partner nations.

The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and not necessarily those of the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence.

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Implementetations of Ethernet-Like Protocols Utilizing Ethernet Technology For Real Time Simulation Networking

Year: 1990

Authors: Michael Georgiopoulos, Jack Thompson, Nicos Christou, Yousuf Me

Abstract: Recent advances in computer and communication technologies have made possible the interconnection of large number of real-time simulators via local area networks. One of the most popular network access protocols is Ethernet. In this paper we discuss some of the limitations of the Ethernet protocol when it is used to interconnect real-time simulation devices. We also introduce two modifications of Ethernet called Ethernet-1 and Ethernet-2 that remedy some of the shortcomings of the Ethernet protocol. It is worth noting that Ethernet-1 and Ethernet-2 are implementable in hardware.

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Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) Program: An Early Consideration of Required Training Systems

Year: 1990

Authors: James Feigley, David Daly, Charles Beagles

Abstract: A recurrent criticism of most major weapon system acquisition programs has been that training system requirements have been an afterthought. The result has often been catch-up, shotgun approaches to training development, which often do not respond to the total training requirement. Extensive support funding is often expended on the use of actual equipment for training and many key operator and maintenance tasks are never thoroughly trained. As part of a more timely attention to training matters, this paper presents an initial view of the future training requirements for the Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) Program. Since the program is in the Concept Exploration Phase, it is clear that the training system requirement will evolve and be further refined. However, the intent of this paper is to start the training requirements definition process early enough to involve both government and industry in the design of efficient and cost-effective solutions to the future AAA training challenge.

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Ada in the 90'S

Year: 1990

Author: Paul McMahon

Abstract: Tools and processes used with Ada are new and the related issues frequently demand timely action. Many of these issues involve both management and technical factors. This results in an increasing necessity for a close working relationship between software management and technical personnel. In some cases, we have found that new software positions are required and in other cases responsibilities of existing positions are changing to more effectively respond to Ada issues. Close working relationships, new software positions, and changing roles all play important parts in meeting the challenge of Ada. This paper presents experiences and lessons learned from our first major Ada simulation project at Link, with a focus on software management issues and changing software roles with Ada in the 90's. The paper identifies key areas of Ada that need to be managed closely today and also steps ahead in time to look at how Ada may affect us in the next decade.

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An Inter Task Protocol for a Multi-Processor Simulator

Year: 1990

Authors: Ken Fearn, Graham Shanks

Abstract:

The paper looks at the relative merits of multi-processor and single-processor architectures and then describes an architecture which promises to confer the benefits of multi-processor designs without incurring the traditional penalties. This architecture is built around an Inter Task Protocol (ITP) which is independent of language, operating system and hardware, and can therefore be implemented in any computing environment. The ITP provides a consistent method for any program/task/process within a simulator to talk to any other, either within a single processor or transparently across processor boundaries. The ITP is true to the aims of Object Orientated Design in that it encourages the larger units of a simulator (program/task/process) to be self-contained and only accessible through a well-defined interface which totally hides the implementation of the function.

The second part of the paper looks at how ITP has been applied within a large simulator employing a mixed architecture of Ada on 68020 processors and C in MS-Windows on 80386 PCs. The problems of implementation of the protocol will be examined, especially with respect to Ada and how this impinges on the tasking mechanisms, the operating systems and the underlying network. Finally an assessment is offered of the success, or failure, of the ITP in regard to achieving the initial objectives:-

• Provide an environment for the development of an individual sub-system in isolation from the remainder of the system.

• Provide an architecture which imposes no software hindrances to growth over more hardware.

• Provide a route to simple and pain-free integration of the sub-systems into a complete system.

• Encourage the design of re-usable tasks.

• Reduce the risks involved in developing a large system

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Using Speech Recognition in Realtime Training Systems: Finding the Balance

Year: 1990

Authors: Lynne Pusanik, Robert Rejent

Abstract: Many new technologies are being implemented to enhance training system effectiveness, particularly in phraseology applications such as air traffic control (ATC). One of these technologies, speech recognition, provides both unique challenges to the developer and unique benefits to the user of the system. This paper shows that requirements for good speech recognition and for good overall training are not mutually exclusive. Specific issues will be addressed, including the development of an appropriate training phraseology as well as common concerns of the user. Guidelines for attaining acceptable recognition accuracy will be provided along with some different methods for quantifying accuracy. Examples of air traffic control phraseology are used in this presentation with specific references to the Shore Based Radar ATC Training System (SATS), the Advanced Shipboard ATC Training System (ASATS), and the Tower Operator Training System (TOTS).

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Combining Real-Time and Time-Sharing Services on a Multiprocessor

Year: 1990

Authors: Ziya Aral, Ilya Gertner, Dave Mitchell

Abstract: Multiprocessor systems offer a unique opportunity to provide general-purpose time-sharing services without sacrificing the deterministic behavior and minimal latencies required for real-time applications. It is possible to achieve this by partitioning the set of processors into two parts: (1) part is dedicated to time-sharing; (2) part is dedicated to real-time computations and control. Many existing approaches to real-time operating systems are based on modifying the base operating systems in order to meet the real-time constraints. The results is an environment that is both very costly to develop and maintain. Our approach combines the time-sharing and real-time services in a unique way; traditional time-sharing services continue to run as part of the operating system; while real-time services are implemented at a user-level that run on top of the dedicated set of processes called gangs. The result is a system that provides all traditional operating services (on System V) and still provides real-time services (for flight simulators).

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The Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT)

Year: 1990

Authors: W. MacDiarmid, Patricia Pierce, Ray Pérez

Abstract: This paper describes ASAT, the Automated Systems Approach to Training System, which has been designed to automate many of the procedures involved in the Army's Systems Approach to Training. It provides information on the background: of the project, specifically addressing the problems that heretofore confronted the training development community within the TRADOC school system in accomplishing their training support mission. It describes the problems involved in analyzing units and the jobs of individual soldiers and designing, developing and producing training support materials (in both the collective and individual training arenas) for use by commanders, training managers, trainers and soldiers in Active and Reserve Component units throughout the Army. The functional design that emerged to resolve those problems is then discussed and the capabilities of the prototype system are explained. Specific issues such as hardware suites, use of commercial-off-the-shelf software, man-machine interface, and data base design are addressed. The paper then goes on to give the results of the economic analysis and the formative evaluation of the prototype system. Based on those empirical findings, the paper then presents suggestions for making ASAT even more responsive to the needs of those involved in collective and individual training analysis, design and development and how the mature ASAT can be integrated into the TRADOC TRAMOD system.

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Mission Rehearsal Database Requirements and Technologies

Year: 1990

Author: Kenneth Donovan

Abstract: Mission rehearsal simulators require geographic databases which represent the simulated gaming area, threats, and targets. Although these mission rehearsal databases are similar to databases created for traditional training simulators, the unique needs of the mission rehearsal application for database currency, fidelity, and correlation are driving the database generation system technology of the 1990's. In most areas, a close integration of existing database technologies from the simulator training community and the image processing community will address the need. In a few areas, the technologies must be improved in order to support mission rehearsal. This paper defines the key requirements of mission rehearsal databases and the technologies which are being developed to produce mission rehearsal databases for operation by mid-1990. The technologies will benefit the training community as well, by reducing the cost and schedule required to develop training simulator databases.

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Teamwork - An Acquisition Management Approach for Networking Trainers

Year: 1990

Author: Craig Bradenbaugh

Abstract: Recent trainer development programs have provided our forces with a number of good combat system and subsystem trainers. With the increased capabilities in microprocessors and protocols, Government and industry now face the technical and management challenge of networking trainers of varying levels of fidelity to increase our total training capability. This requires teamwork from the Government, sponsors, users, and industry. This was recently accomplished with the successful, low cost integration of the Device 20B5 Combat System Team Trainer and the AN/SQQ-89 ASW On Board Trainer. This paper presents the important management issues and processes for successfully networking these two major U.S. Navy training systems. Four Government agencies and two major industry contractors established a realistic technical approach, a budget, and a process to meet the programmed requirements. The process included defining a low cost approach, conducting a proof-of-concept demonstration by rapid prototyping, and establishing disciplined rules for tradeoffs utilizing each trainer's existing processing methods, thus avoiding the temptation to redesign or elevate the design. Cooperation and good communications made these principles stick throughout the program via progress review formats that established achievable action items, and defined responsibility for each organization to keep the program objective. As a result, the users were satisfied with the tradeoffs made, the trainers were integrated within 14 months, and performance, schedule, and cost objectives were met. This approach and lessons learned provide some guidelines and direct applications for future networking of existing training systems at relatively low costs. It is a management challenge as well as a technical challenge.

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