Found 90 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1989
Development of a Front end Analysis Tool

Year: 1989

Authors: Jeffery Maxey, Robert Ahlers


After almost 20 years, deficiencies still exist in ISD and the products prepared for training. Analysts attribute many ISD shortcomings to compromises made in its implementation and limitations in the available tools. To improve the quality of ISD products, the Naval Training System Center is developing a family of software tools to support the ISD front end analysis process. The first of these is VISTA, the Visual Interactive System for Task Analysis.

This paper describes VISTA's design philosophy which incorporated the application of basic human factors data in concert with refinement through iterative test and evaluation. The design process is discussed to include results from system usability tests. The paper also describes VISTA's present state and plans for future development and applications.

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Object-Oriented Software Requirements Analysis

Year: 1989

Authors: Howard Lessey, Jerome Hengemihle

Abstract: This paper describes a process used for the specification of training device software, The primary goal of the process is to insure that the software requirements as understood by the software engineer meet the user's needs. This goal is achieved through the development of a structured specification using the graphical notation of data flow diagrams. The technique is object-oriented In that it focuses engineering effort toward identifying requirements based on real world objects. The object-oriented specification is an ideal starting point for the development of an object-oriented software design.

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An Integrated Training System for Personal Enhancement

Year: 1989

Authors: Deborah McCormick, Paul Jones


The major goal of Navy training is to produce a well-trained sailor in the shortest possible time. Accomplishing this goal means optimizing the sailor's experience at the training command, i.e., providing maximum opportunity for learning. Optimization of training time becomes even more critical in the face of an increased number of students with basic academic deficiencies - poorly developed math, reading, and study skills. With these ideas in mind, the Naval Construction Training Center, Gulfport, Mississippi, in conjunction with the Chief of Naval Technical Training and the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, initiated a project known as the Personal Enhancement Program (PEP). This project was designed to provide students with increased opportunities for learning through the establishment of an integrated learning center supporting seven technical fields taught at the commands.

PEP is fundamentally computer-based, using inexpensive microcomputers. Courseware is, for the most part, developed by schoolhouse personnel using the Computer-Based Educational Software System (CBESS), a family of Navy-owned authoring programs. The paper discusses conceptualization and implementation of the program and presents future plans for the project, which include the establishment of "satellite" centers at various locations at the command.

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Rapid Software Development: A Generic Tactical Simulator/Trainer

Year: 1989

Authors: Randal Holl, John Cooke


A Rapid Prototyping approach to software development has been refined over the past five years. Rapid Prototyping allows the designer to explore a wide range of design concepts, tailor system features to end-user needs, and install a supportable working product within a short time at low cost. A case in point is the Tactical ASW Interim Trainer (TASWIT).

TASWIT provides a significant upgrade to the 14A6 Team Trainer at the Fleet ASW Training Center, Norfolk, VA. The system provides a flexible, distributed architecture for real-time wargaming based on low cost simulation stations. TASWIT went from concept to initial operating capability in one year for under $3.2 Million. TASWIT has received high marks from the user community for its training capabilities and user friendliness.

Using TASWIT as an example, we review the Rapid Prototyping methodology and the project characteristics critical for its successful application.

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Requirements of a Training Management System for Aircrew Training

Year: 1989

Author: Michael Reakes

Abstract: This paper reviews the functional requirements of a Training Management System (TMS) for a typical Aircrew Training System (ATS), Requirements Include: to maintain all appropriate records for students, instructors, training equipment, and curricula; to manage the progress of individual students as they undertake training, and progressively confirm that students acquire the required skills and knowledge; to identify any deficiencies of individual students, and recommend appropriate corrective action (remediation), to perform optimal scheduling of students, instructors and training equipment, resolve scheduling conflicts, and cope with the inevitable short-term reassignments; to evaluate the overall ATS by analyzing student data, establishing meaningful trends, and to generate reports, so that the overall ATS can be improved. The TMS must be utilized by a variety of user classes, while ensuring appropriate data security. A proposed TMS system architecture is described which includes a UNIX computer system, terminals, optical mark readers, and modems for communicating across the bases, and between sites. Application code is written in a fourth generation database language supplemented by C code where required.

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89-OBT: Expanding the Navy's ASW/ASUW Training Capabilities Using State-of-the-Art Stimulation Techniques

Year: 1989

Authors: Mary Zahm, James Hammond

Abstract: Within the past decade, some of the congestion in the Navy's sonar operator training pipeline has been relieved through the use of on-board front-end-stimulated trainers such as the the DS-1210, AN/BQR-T4, and AN/SQS-T5. These evolutionary trainers have been enthusiastically accepted by the fleet because they support controlled, realistic individual and team training both dockside and at sea. Recently, advances in microprocessor development and display design technologies have enabled the further evolution of the AN/SQS-T5 design to a sophisticated, new generation, embedded training system designated as the AN/SQQ-89(V)-T( ) On-Board Trainer (89-OBT). This training system is currently being installed onboard all major surface ASW ships including AEGIS Cruisers and Destroyers, Perry class Frigates, and Spruance class Destroyers. This paper describes the major capabilities and features of the 89-OBT design as well as the types of individual and team training supported by it.

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Advanced Tactical Simulation: Using an Expert System to Simulate an Air-to-Air Combat Environment

Year: 1989

Author: Mark Partridge


In response to demand for increasingly complex tactical environment simulation, Loral is developing a system to support an interactive, multi-threat environment providing n-versus-n air combat training. This system is designed to be integrated with existing simulators/trainers providing a tactical environment involving both intelligent threat and assist platforms.

An embedded expert system based on a commercial expert system development shell independently directs the friendly and hostile forces in the tactical environment providing students with realistic combat and mission scenarios. The expert system utilizes conventional rules and heuristics, as well as frame based representation (classes and objects) which support inheritance and pattern matching. Reasoning is accomplished by an inference engine using both forward and backward chaining. Default reasoning strategies permit real-time decision making when data is uncertain or incomplete. A menu-driven graphical interface enables the tactical knowledge base to be quickly updated as threats and tactics change.

Dynamic, real-time response is achieved by using a distributed architecture of networked processors. Included in the equipment suite is a graphics workstation serving dual functions. A graphical editor using DMA terrain data provides capability for rapid generation of the tactical scenarios within the gaming area. The workstation also presents instructors with a real-time graphical representation of a currently executing tactical training exercise.

Current work involves expanding the domain of the tactical knowledge base to support multiple intelligent contacts (hostile and friendly) and the integration of a natural language interface. The natural language is based on a pilot-oriented tactical vocabulary and employs a voice recognition/synthesis system for simulation of two-way communication during a simulated air combat mission.

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Trainer Concurrency - Problems and Solutions

Year: 1989

Author: Eric Haseltine


Military training simulators frequently do not faithfully represent prime vehicles and systems. Simulated avionics and weapons systems, for example, commonly lag those of the prime vehicle by 18 to 24 months, greatly reducing the effectiveness of many trainers. In the future, as the complexity and flexibility of weapons systems increase, the difficulty of maintaining trainer concurrency will grow.

Recent attempts to solve the concurrency problem have focused on a greater involvement of prime vehicle manufacturers and more timely dissemination of vehicle data to simulator vendors. However, these measures alone cannot achieve trainer concurrency unless simulators are properly designed from the start to handle instructional features such as freeze and record/replay in conjunction with on-board processors, sensors, and weapons. Furthermore, designs to achieve concurrency must recognize that budget constraints will pose a continuing threat to realizing concurrency over the life of a trainer.

This paper presents a methodology for making up-front design decisions to achieve trainer concurrency in the most cost effective manner. The methodology is a trade-off analysis that considers a) number of trainers to be procured, b) frequency of update or modification of each vehicle subsystem, c) recurring and non-recurring costs of candidate simulation, emulation and stimulation techniques for each subsystem, and d) fidelity achievable for candidate simulation, emulation, and stimulation techniques in comparision to training requirements for fidelity.

The methodology is illustrated through a design trade-off analysis for a fighter radar simulation.

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Experiences Using Ada And DOD-STD-2167A

Year: 1989

Author: James O'Day

Abstract: This paper will discuss various experiences gained during the first year of the MV-22A OFT/AST program. The MV-22A OFT/AST program is one of the first programs to require the use of both Ada and DOD-STD-2167A for software development. The focus of this paper will be on lessons learned and observations during the first year of this program. The areas to be covered include DOD-STD-2167A, training, APSE issues, the concept of a software structural model, and prototyping applications in simulation.

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Ada and Object Oriented Design for Simulation in Theory and in Practice

Year: 1989

Author: P. Baker


For any software development group attempting to establish its future strategy for major software projects, there has never been a greater range of languages and techniques from which to choose. For those with major defense industry commitments there is overwhelming pressure to conform to standards, and in particular to standardize on the use of Ada.

In this paper the particular experience of one group of engineers who followed this path for the development of an avionics sub-system Simulator and Test Rig are discussed. The objectives and key decision points are highlighted and, although the project has not yet reached it's completion, there are significant conclusions that have been identified during the development process.

Consideration is given to:-

Primary Objectives

Clear representation of the Requirement and its reflection in the Design.

High level of software component re-use.

Efficient development process.

Maintainability of the product.


The Codes of Practice used in each phase of the software LIFECYCLE.

Development Environment

Ada products used.

Software tools.

Workstations and support equipment.

The Development Process

Reactions from the software team.

Training needs.

The Results

Costs and Benefits.

Achievement of objectives.

In conclusion, this paper summarizes the degree of success encountered with this approach to Ada and reviews plans for 'next time'.

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