Found 87 Papers
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Volume 1987
The C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS): A User Perspective of the Advantages and Problems

Year: 1987

Author: Jonathan Baethge

Abstract: Military Airlift Command's (MAC) first aircrew training system (ATS) becomes fully operational this year. As we implement the C-5 ATS, we are keenly aware of the significant advantages of contractor provided training. Best commercial practices provided MAC new FAA Phase II Weapon System Trainers ready for training 23 months after contract award and an integrated ATS with formal and continuation training (24 courses, from initial qualification through flight examiner) in less than three years. Both acquisition and life cycle operation are at a substantial cost savings over in-house methods. As we begin training students, we can better define potential problem areas and user concerns. Crew members and leadership alike need to understand the training system and the key role they play in life cycle feedback. Quality assurance evaluation plans must be drafted and coordinated early to assure Air Force and contractor plans complement each other. Air Force procedures to approve, fund, and proceed with modifications must be streamlined to facilitate concurrency of the training system.

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The Training of Experts For High-Tech Work Environments

Year: 1987

Authors: Sherrie Gott, Robert Pokorny

Abstract:

When a training program fails to markedly influence the development of high-tech complex skills (such as electronic troubleshooting), the failure can generally be traced to two sources. First, failure occurs when training is not based on clear and explicit models of the desired expertise. For problem solving expertise, specifications of the expert's internal strategic processes for handling complex problems and the particular forms of knowledge and skill that support the strategies are especially critical. Secondly, failure occurs because the training of complex mental skills often fails to consider the conditions that are needed for the development of cognitive expertise, though similar conditions for the development of advanced physical skills are well known. They include extensive, constructive practice sessions where "the game is played" (i.e., authentic problems are solved) under realistic conditions. For such practice to be constructive, the trainee needs commentary and guidance from a coach who, among other things, can model the desired (problem solving) performance and carefully sequence problems according to the trainee's progress, while at the same time providing external support in the form of problem solving hints and instructional information. This set of conditions requires the learner to adopt an active role in skill development and situates learning and extended practice in the context of real world problems. This instructional approach is in contrast to traditional, more passive skill training where the instruction amounts to telling students about a domain such as electronics rather than providing learning experiences for doing electronic problem solving.

A large research and development program is underway in the Air Force to train technicians for complex work environments in a manner that seeks to avoid these pitfalls. The Air Force Basic Job Skills (BJS) Research Program is examining the performance of technical experts in dozens of occupations to establish models of expertise as targets for training. Advances in knowledge engineering procedures such as those used in developing expert systems are being applied to specify in great detail the technical expert's strategies and supporting skill and knowledge bases. Of particular interest are dimensions of expert performance that cut across Air Force jobs and can thus be characterized as basic to expertise in complex work environments. In some sense these common dimensions can be viewed as modern day basic skills or the skills needed for a technologically advanced world. In addition, applications of artificial intelligence to instruction in the form of intelligent tutoring systems are being utilized to create the desired conditions for active, problem-oriented learning. In this paper, work done with over 15 experts in four related electronic and computer maintenance jobs will be highlighted to illustrate the "engineering" of expert knowledge. Also, a successful training study conducted with apprentice electronic technicians will be reported. In this study, the standard obstacles in complex skill training were satisfactorily overcome.

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Automated Flight Test Data Correlator For A Helicopter Flight Training Simulator

Year: 1987

Authors: Susan Gating, Michael Brychcy

Abstract: This paper discusses an accurate, semi-automated method for increasing the performance fidelity of a helicopter flight training system's aerodynamic model. The method employs an automated correlation algorithm known as AUTOCOR for systematic adjustments of the quasi-static mathematical model using fundamental aerodynamic model parameters. The AUTOCOR algorithm is divided into two phases. The first concerns calculation of the incremental forces and moments necessary to modify the vehicle's static trim attitudes and pilot control positions to match those of the actual helicopter throughout its entire flight maneuver envelope. The second phase centers on optimal incorporation of these forces, moments, and other empirical adjustments into the simulator's model data tables by judicious use of numerical techniques. The AUTOCOR algoridim provides satisfactory results even with an incomplete flight test data set.

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AI in Maintenance Training - Some Tangible Results

Year: 1987

Authors: David Sykes, L. Keskey

Abstract: This paper describes the implementation of an AI system that can perform the dual role of Job Performance Aid (JPA) and Intelligent Tutor (IT) for use in On-the-Job Training (OJT). It is well known that the best human experts possess a mental model of internal equipment operation and a good trainer will teach this conceptual knowledge as well as the usual diagnostic skills. The Intelligent Tutor portion is aimed at building this mental model through interaction with a simulation of the equipment. The student interface employs high resolution graphics and a mouse. The simulation is a qualitative causal model which is much simpler than a full mathematical model yet retains all the important distinctions between system states. The Job Performance Aid is an Expert System (ES) which is automatically derived from the qualitative simulation model. This is accomplished by using the model to predict the behavior of the equipment and the propagation of effects under all conceivable conditions. The ES rules are then induced from the fault symptom pattern produced by exercising the model. By taking this approach, the ES provides "deep reasoning" as opposed to the "shallow reasoning" often found in an ES based solely on externally observable features.

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Low Cost Personal Computer Rifle Marksmanship Expert Trainer (MET)

Year: 1987

Authors: Albert Marshall, Robert McCormack, Edward Purvis, Ronald Wolff

Abstract: The Naval Training Systems Center has developed a low cost marksmanship expert trainer, MET, that allows low cost marksmanship training without an instructor, real weapon or rifle range. The system is safe and does not use costly ammunition. As part of this program, a special long range light pen was developed. The U. S. Navy is currently contemplating the use of this system to teach marksmanship in the Navy's Recruit Training Centers. Teaching marksmanship has required live rounds, special ranges, and a large number of instructors. At present, Navy investment in real estate in close proximity to recruit training centers to construct rifle ranges would be difficult. Also, a large number of experienced instructors would be needed and the high cost of live rounds will add greatly to the Navy's training budget. This paper describes the MET system and the technology applied to this new rifle marksmanship training device. An expert system has been developed to alleviate both the cost and shortage of instructors. The expert trainer is controlled by a personal computer, the Zenith 248. The MET collects real-time shooter performance data or facts, and then executes rules that analyze the trainee performance. Trainee feedback is provided on the computer monitor and by a computer generated voice. The feedback describes the source of shooting errors including improper sight picture, poor shooting position, incorrect trigger squeeze, and incorrect breath control. Through detailed guidance, the novice is able to transition to marksman.

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Training Engineering: A Parametric Approach to Computer-Based Training Design

Year: 1987

Authors: Mary Trainor, Andrew Andrews

Abstract: Training engineering, a new model for computer-based training (CBT), has been devised and put into use by the Cognitive Engineering Design and Research Team (CEDAR) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training engineering is the application of scientific principles to the design, construction, and operation of efficient training systems. Such an approach is necessary because of the level of complexity CBT design and development has reached with the new advanced technologies. Instructional designers are under pressure to implement these new technologies more rapidly than has been required in the past, yet few models have emerged to aid designers in this process. Training engineering is such a model. It provides techniques for design and development that are derived from successful engineering techniques. This paper begins with a discussion of the engineering approach and then applies this approach to training. Examples from prototype CBT projects at Los Alamos are used throughout to illustrate the training engineering concept.

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The Strengths, Successes and Lessons Learned in the Use of Computer-Based Training by the S-3A, F/A-18 AND F-14A Naval Aviation Training Programs

Year: 1987

Authors: Ellen Le Vita, Amanda Williams

Abstract:

The role of computer-based training (CBT) is growing in support of high-technology aircrew training systems. As the potential of CBT continues to grow, it is expected to play a more significant role in highly sophisticated training applications. The advantages of CBT are many. It is a medium for both cognitive and procedural training; it is currently the most flexible medium for maintaining concurrency with modern, rapidly changing aircraft and weapons systems; and it can be used as a vehicle to manage instruction. The self-paced capabilities of the medium ensure that students meet criterion levels of performance even when used within the context of lock-step programs.

CBT is being applied in three Navy aircrew training programs. It has been used in the S-3A and F/A-18 programs for several years and is currently being implemented to train F-14A aircrew. Future programs, including the F-14D, A-6F, E-2C and SH-60F, will also use CBT in aircrew training systems.

This paper will describe the strengths, successes and lessons learned in the use of CBT by the S-3A, F/A-18 and F-14A programs and how the use of CBT in these programs can serve as the building blocks for new CBT and training system development. The general conclusions of the authors is that a means to communicate these experiences will allow training systems managers and planners to build programs on a sound basis of experience. In this age of rapid technological advancements, training systems designs based on experience will offer the critical advantage.

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Design of A Generic Training Device Control Console Using Ada

Year: 1987

Authors: V. Faconti, L. McDonald

Abstract: Several factors set the stage for control console designers who wish to compete in today's training environment. Chief among these are various DoD initiatives to reduce the costs and increase effectiveness of training systems. The DoD mandate to use Ada* is a good example. This paper documents a program of research aimed at developing a design approach to realize the DoD cost-effectiveness goals in the training device control console area. This approach features increased use of modular generic software solutions which can be applied over a wide range of situations. At the same time, the approach allows for modification to accommodate specific requirements as needed. A functional baseline was developed based upon reported console design studies and then expanded through developmental testing and user surveys. User reactions and Ada lessons learned are also discussed.

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Software Documentation on Magnetic Media and the Trainer Computational System

Year: 1987

Author: Steven Prince

Abstract:

As trainer systems become more complex, the amount of software required to implement these systems increases. Consequently, the amount of documentation necessary to support the trainer software also increases. It is now: typical for initial trainer system documentation to number over 50,000 pages. Over the life of the system, due to change activity and resubmittals, this number can increase tenfold. At the outset of the EF-111A Operational Flight Trainer (OFT) Program, the heavy burden that this paper volume could place on both contractor and customer was recognized.

A suggestion was made to maintain the EF-111A OFT software documentation on the trainer computational system and deliver the documentation to the customer on magnetic media. Both the customer and contractor determined that potential cost savings as well as capabilities not available under the present paper system were attainable. Consequently, a change was incorporated into the contract to allow magnetic media delivery of software documentation, and modifications were made to documentation formats to accommodate its use. The change was implemented with no impact on the program schedule and in such a way as to minimize the need for new tools, software, or hardware.

This paper describes the system that was developed to provide the creation, maintenance, and delivery by magnetic media of the software documentation on the trainer computational system. The lessons learned, problems encountered, and successes realized from the effort are detailed. Topics Include methods used for documenting changes resulting from software element changes, incorporating subcontractor documentation, providing text editor capabilities to the customer, incorporating source file data into documents, interrogating configuration management files to determine software and documentation status, handling illustrations and special characters, and maximizing resources.

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Efficient, Production-Oriented CBT Authoring

Year: 1987

Author: Kevin Parks

Abstract:

Computer based training is no longer an experimental method of training in the military. It has been used on a very large number of programs, either as initial training to precede simulator training or as standalone training. There has, however, been much controversy over how best to produce computer based courseware. The training community has realized that a major cost in the use of CBT is the development of the courseware. The goal is to develop the most effective courseware for the least cost. The controversy has been between whether to use an authoring system, which speed production and is easy to use but has restrictions, or to use an authoring language, which is more difficult to use but provides more capability and flexibility.

This presentation will describe a solution to that controversy, the use of an authoring package that combines both an authoring system and an authoring language. The package was designed to be multilevel so that ease and power would both be available to the courseware developer.

The first level of the authoring package is designed to be easy to learn and quick to use. It Is intended for the beginning author and the development of simple courseware interactions. It consists of a series of menus and forms that the author uses to specify how the courseware will work when the student interacts with it.

The next level is designed to be used when the author needs more sophisticated tools than are available in the first level. The difference is that there are more menus and more choices.

The third level is an authoring language that provides extremely powerful tools for developing sophisticated part-task training and simulations.

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