Found 61 Papers
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Volume 1986
Enhanced Knowledge of Results: Individual and Team Approaches

Year: 1986

Authors: Robert Hays, Arthur Blaiwes

Abstract: The effectiveness of training programs depends fundamentally upon the availability of knowledge of results (KOR) concerning trainees' performance and how the KOR is used in instruction. This paper describes examples of individual and team training applications of enhanced KOR. The individual, training system, called the Automated Performance Assessment and Readiness Training System (APARTS), generates KOR on carrier landing performance that is used by instructors to integrate training in operational aircraft with practice in a flight simulator. APARTS is currently being implemented at all Air Wings and Fleet Replacement Squadrons. The team training example, the Surface Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) Training System, incorporates a variety of KOR data and presentation techniques to address problems unique to team training. Procurement of a prototype version of this major system is underway at the Naval Training Systems Center, and "follow-on" systems are planned for the near future. Requirements for individual and team training are compared.

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Simulator Design Criteria: New Emphasis in Concurrent Developments

Year: 1986

Author: Barry Smith

Abstract: Rather than pages of specific design-to performance descriptions and tolerances, development specifications released at contract award for complex training systems often require the simulation of many aspects of a trainer to be "in accordance with design criteria." The use of this reference enables work to begin on aircrew training devices roughly at the same time as full-scale development of the weapon system being simulated. However, this concurrent approach complicates the determination of the simulation performance required. By properly using a design criteria list, the actual detailed requirements for simulation can be well communicated. This paper explores the use of a design criteria list in a typical weapon system trainer development. Examples of design criteria use and misuse are drawn from on-going simulator programs. The need for weapon system prime contractor involvement, well chosen design criteria freeze dates, and documentation of design assumptions throughout the development cycle is emphasized. Through the process illustrated, the accumulation, distillation, and application of design criteria data is portrayed as the cornerstone of representative simulation of actual weapon system performance. In concurrent weapon system and simulator programs, design criteria may actually be more important than the development specification itself in determining simulation requirements.

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What Ever Happened to Teamwork? A Concept of Future Customer Acceptance Testing

Year: 1986

Authors: Thomas Holzer, Prisca Lynch

Abstract:

A major goal of systems procurements has been getting a quality product as quickly as possible. In the simulator world, a serious drive is now on for concurrency. Attempts have always been and will still be made to reduce the total cost of the procurement. One costly phase of the development schedule, because of its associated time and manpower requirements, is the test phase. Of particular importance is Customer Acceptance Testing. By making some significant changes to the test philosophy and how the tests are actually conducted, significant gains could be made by the contractor, buyer and user.

This paper will review doctrines of system test planning which have been held sacred by both sides. A background to the purpose and goals of system test will be presented. Additionally, the structuring of a system's various test phases will be reviewed. New ideas will then be presented on how, with cooperation and trust by all parties concerned, everyone can accomplish what they always have and now a lot more. Evidence of how implementation of some of these new ideas has worked will be reviewed.

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Commercial Quality Standards for Training System Subcontractors and Vendors

Year: 1986

Author: T. Tierney

Abstract: Link quality assurance specialists have set out to determine a more precise definition of "best commercial practices" than is currently applied in procurement policies, which call for criteria less rigorous than those imposed under MIL-Q-9858 and MIL-I-45208. The term "best commercial practices" is understood to apply to those items which are neither complex nor critical, and such items represent the large majority of procurements made under military and commercial contracts. It has been Link's experience that quality obtained under "best commercial practices" ranges widely, from full compliance with MIL-Q-9858 to virtually no compliance whatever. Establishment of precise standards for "best commercial practice" leads to three desirable results: quality inspection costs are reduced, suppliers know precisely what is expected, and minimum standards are defined for training systems in general. Accordingly, we have developed four specifications that define "best commercial practices" to our suppliers as part of a comprehensive procurement quality assurance program.

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VISA 4 : A Computed Image Generator for Ground Training

Year: 1986

Authors: Gérard Allain, Paul Boidin

Abstract:

VISA 4 is the most recent member of the THOMSON-CSF family real time computed image generators to have been developed by the Simulator Division.

VISA 4 has drastically changed and increased the capabilities of training simulators. It is particularly well suited to armored vehicle simulators, and can meet requirements for driver and gunner training at the individual or platoon crew level.

This paper describes the principles of the VISA 4 system and the new features which contribute to its potential for training ground based personnel.

The main characteristics of VISA 4 are :

• high image quality

• generalized use of high definition texturing on the whole environment

• dynamic underload and overload control

• close correlation between image and vehicle simulation, necessary for aircraft simulators, and especially important for ground operation simulators.

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Measurements and Effects of Transport Delays in a State-of-the-Art F-16C Flight Simulator

Year: 1986

Author: Scott Horowitz

Abstract: In recent years the military community has developed advanced simulators for high performance fighter-type aircraft. These devices not only simulate high performance aircraft but also complex tasks such as air to air combat, aerial refueling, air to ground combat, and formation flying. With the increases in the sophistication of these simulators has come a corresponding increase in computational complexity. This complexity has negated the effects of higher computational speeds available in today's computers; thus the transport delays have remained essentially constant. What has not remained constant, however, are the effects these transport delays have on the training effectiveness of these complex simulators. Since these modern simulators tend to be very complex in nature and consist of many computers interfaced with each other, the determination and measurements of the transport delays is often difficult. The effects these delays have on the simulation of a high performance fighter-type aircraft are also difficult to determine. The Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Operations Training Division (AFHRL/OT) is currently completing the development of a new F-16C simulator with full field-of-view visual display and no motion system. This paper describes the methods utilized to measure the transport delays that exist in this system and some of their effects on the training effectiveness of the simulation.

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Software Security - How Do We Design It?

Year: 1986

Author: Ellen Velasquez

Abstract:

With today's growing complexity in weapon system technology, we are experiencing a corresponding increase in fidelity of aircrew training devices. Industry's ability to accurately simulate all phases of a mission, using classified equipment and information onboard today s aircraft sets the stage for potential espionage. As a result, there is growing concern within the defense community over the possible compromise of the integrity and confidentiality of the data and programs used in the simulation.

To this date, the main area of focus for security has been external. These include plans to restrict access and control electronic emissions.

Previous emphasis being directed toward external security, this paper addresses the somewhat neglected area of software security. There are two phases of the software life cycle - developmental and operational. In the developmental phase, software security can be implemented by secure operating systems. I will present a design for a secure operating system. Within the operational environment, maintenance/modification processes present a wealth of opportunity to compromise the system through software modification. Strict control must be maintained over the programmer/analyst's ability to access classified information and programs. To deal with operational security, I will present methods which limit and control unauthorized access to code and data.

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The Navy Hardman Process: Training the Analyst

Year: 1986

Author: Robert Bloom

Abstract: This paper focuses on the training of Manpower, Personnel, and Training (MPT) analysts to perform the Navy HARDMAN Methodology. It describes analysts' performance requirements as a foundation for determining trainee educational outcomes and the knowledge and skill requirements for an experience-based training program. It describes the Navy HARDMAN Methodology as a logical planning and analytical process prior to and in concert with weapon system resource programming, budgeting, and life cycle decisions. It provides insights about HARDMAN as both a people and a data Interaction process. It points out the necessity for training analysts to Influence the weapon system acquisition documentation, decision, and Interaction processes if HARDMAN is to be effective.

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Simulation Based Maintenance Training

Year: 1986

Author: Jack Fritz

Abstract: The training of personnel to maintain today's sophisticated military equipment has long been associated with basically two extremes in terms of level of instruction and resulting proficiency. On the simplistic end of the scale, recent technology has produced panel boards and video disk based devices which offer an abstracted, idealized portrayal of the operation and failure modes of the actual device to be maintained. These two dimensional devices allow for a variety of training situations but lack fidelity and encourage development of poor maintenance habits. At the other end of the scale, actual operating equipment has been used which, while certainly realistic, allow for only routine servicing and mundane maintenance tasks as failures of components cannot be activated, upon demand. These trainers also expose the trainee to hazards far above their ability to cope. As an alternative a proper maintenance trainer design could be based upon proven simulation concepts. These concepts have been established primarily in flight simulation and training. This paper will, enumerate and quantify these fundamental concepts. It will then be shown that for the first time a set of maintenance trainers based upon these concepts has been developed, and that significant improvements in depth of training have been made.

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Aircrew Training System: Test and Evaluation

Year: 1986

Author: J. Shaw

Abstract: The recent initiatives by the U.S. Air Force to implement total contractor Aircrew Training Systems, (ATS) have invoked various levels of accountability with respect to development and performance. The ATS contractor(s) are faced with new, completely interrelated design verification procedures, quality assurance requirements, and implementation/interface controls. Test and Evaluation concepts established by DOD policy are directly applicable to this new environment. However, the processes are complex, requiring rigorous basic disciplines from development through the full life cycle of the system, Recognition of the T&E requirements as design objectives will significantly reduce the risks and improve utility, supportability, and the contractors profitability. This paper provides an approach to the philosophical and functional management issues associated with the measurement, evaluation and qualification of the various elements of an Aircrew Training System during both the development and the operational program phases. Included are considerations for system testability to certify the ISD, Media, Curriculum, and the trainee. The paper also addresses the Test and Evaluation contributions to performance management, product improvements, and cost benefits throughout the life of the contract.

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