Found 60 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1985
Digital Control Loading and Motion the Final Word?

Year: 1985

Authors: J. Cooper, M. Rutherford, G. McKinnon

Abstract: This paper reviews the essential elements in effective load unit design and introduces a novel approach to digital control loading and motion with extensive performance and logistics benefits. Performance of the digital system is superior to modern analog systems. A 3-KHz iteration rate provides the ability to model non-linear characteristics which are difficult to reproduce cost-effectively in an analog model. Maintenance and sparing of the digital controller is simplified by the use of a minimum number of different card types with built-in automated diagnostics which locate failures at the board level. Updates and maintenance adjustments are performed through user-friendly software utilities, with rigid configuration control of the system's state via software backups.

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F-16 Simulators - What have We Learned?

Year: 1985

Author: John Lethert

Abstract:

This paper will look at the F-16 Weapon System Trainer Program to determine what lessons have been learned. In looking at the lessons learned the paper will examine them in light of current Air Force Simulator Policy, specifically, the training of safety of flight and warfighting tasks, concurrency, and minimizing simulator costs. In looking at these areas the paper will:

a. Show how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the F-16 program.

b. Discuss how they can be incorporated into the F-16 and future programs.

c. Discuss what is the relationship of these lessons to such initiatives as commercial versus military practices, Modularity, and the Training System Concept.

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New Technology Enhancements to Instructor Operator Stations

Year: 1985

Author: E. Baudhuin

Abstract: The complexity of Instructor Operator Stations (IOS) and the lack of full utilization of IOS instructional features were examined in two interrelated IR&D programs. A major objective in these studies was to simplify instructor/operator tasks by using new technology enhancements and display screen formats. Studies were conducted to determine IOS functional requirements and to assess the applicability of new technologies to these requirements. Interviews were conducted with simulator users at two military installations and at a nuclear power company training facility. IOS operations manuals and supporting technical documentation were reviewed. A voice technology system was selected and laboratory demonstrations developed using typical IOS functions and formats. Studies of touch screen technologies were conducted and a resistive membrane technology was selected as an additional technology enhancement. Alternative cursor control devices were reviewed and a mouse was selected as the principal cursor controller. Methods for accessing current tableaux were reviewed to determine whether new screen designs might facilitate using new technology enhancements. The feasbility of using voice recognition, touch-sensitive screens and the mouse as substitutes for typical keyboard operations was demonstrated. Findings also indicated a significant need for the redesign of IOS display screens in order to exploit new technologies. New screen designs that would eliminate information overload, use more graphics, and allow easy access to touch selective features were recommended. Traditional backup devices were maintained where a new technology serviced as the primary MMI. Functional descriptions for new technology enhanced military and commercial IOS were developed as a result of the research.

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Contractor Support, How Can We Ensure Training Device Availability?

Year: 1985

Author: Timothy Mathews

Abstract: Phase-out of the simulator maintenance career field in the United States Armed Forces is now well under way. Whether or not contractors can successfully maintain the military's training devices is not at issue. Instead, tomorrow's challenge will be providing cost-effective and timely support for military trainers while ensuring trainer effectiveness and configuration management of the devices. If we are to meet that challenge, straight forward contracts that require trainer availability must become commonplace. Support contracts that include incentive and penalty provisions will benefit both government and industry. From the user's perspective, this paper discusses the need for guaranteed trainer availability within the Armed Forces aircrew training community, and proposes methods of implementing contractor support for existing and future aircrew training devices without sacrificing trainer availability. The author focuses on available methods to successfully transition from either organic support to contractor maintenance to full contractor logistic support. Benefits of contract support along with pitfalls of current support techniques are examined. The author also explores the need for enforceable contracts that will enable both the government and industry to capitalize on a successful transition to contractor logistic support.

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The Human Side of Computer-Based Training

Year: 1985

Author: Norbert Kubilus

Abstract: More and more, the world of training is becoming a computer-oriented world. Computer-based training can provide advantages over more conventional training methods in terms of flexibility and cost effectiveness. While the primary emphasis is being concentrated on the computer hardware and software used to deliver the training content, there is often too little consideration being paid to the human factors. In general, the human side of computer-based training requires an assessment of the interfaces between the trainee and the computer. Basically, one must ask whether a computer-based training device can be used easily, accurately and without trainee fatigue. This paper describes some of the fundamental factors that must be considered such as information presentation, temporal usage concerns, and maintaining trainee interest.

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Fault Insertion Improves Maintenance Training

Year: 1985

Author: Lance Young

Abstract:

An effective electronic maintenance training program is dependent on the ability to insert faults into training equipment so that students may have hands-on experience in troubleshooting "failed hardware". The faults, and method of presentation to the student, must reinforce the training objectives while at the same time demonstrate the classic failure mode of the training equipment. Ideally, the method of fault insertion will be: transparent to the student, low cost, easily maintained, require a minimum of support documentation, be remotely and rapidly controllable, limit wear and tear on training equipment, and pose no safety hazard to personnel or equipment.

The increased complexity and size of operational systems coupled with higher costs for personnel and training dictate the need for a more realistic, effective, and efficient fault insertion technique as opposed to those in common use today. This paper will examine the concept of a microprocessor based fault insertion device (FID); a technique which has been successfully utilized in several major training systems. Comparisons will be made between a FID and other common methods of fault insertion.

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Visual Display Research Tool Performance vs. Design Goals

Year: 1985

Authors: Denis Breglia, Dick Windyka, Bruce Barber

Abstract:

The Visual Display Research Tool (VDRT) is a visual simulation system comprising a two channel computer image generation (CIG) system, a head/eye attitude sensing system, and a helmet mounted laser projected dome display system. The VDRT was designed to provide an observer apparent wide field-of-view full color, high resolution, high detail density simulation of the out-of-the-cockpit visual environment.

The VDRT design approach takes advantage of the visual perception limitations of the man-in-the-loop through the use of an eye-coupled area-of-interest. The design of the VDRT was presented to the visual, simulation community in 1981 at the IMAGE II Conference and the Third IITEC Conference. This paper will discuss the progress in developing the VDRT resulting from a contract between the Naval Training System Center (NAVTRASYSCEN) and American Airlines Training Corporation (AATC). AATC and their major sub-contractors Rediffusion Simulation Limited, General Electric and Polhemus Navigation Sciences (PNS) division of McDonnell Douglas Electronics Company have delivered the VDRT system components on-site at NAVTRASYSCEN in April 1985. In-plant test of system components have been completed and results will be reported. System integration and Government final inspection will have been completed by December 1985 and system performance relative to design goals will be reported.

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New Coast Guard Simulators: Our Four Year Experience

Year: 1985

Author: David Jones

Abstract: In July of 1981, the U. S. Coast Guard awarded a contract to Sperry Corp. for two flight simulators. One simulator was for a recent addition to the Coast Guard inventory, the HU-25A. The HU-25A, a fixed wing Medium Range Surveillance (MRS), is a modified Falcon 20. The other simulator was for the HH-65A, a modified Aerospatiale Dauphin helicopter. The HH-65A was still in development when the simulator contract was awarded so the aircraft and simulator were being produced concurrently. The project officer for the HH-65A simulator was involved in the entire acquisition process - from draft specifications to ready-for-training date.

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Performance Monitoring and Intelligent Training

Year: 1985

Authors: Matt Narotam, Donna Behnke

Abstract: This paper presents a sophisticated approach to performance monitoring and Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) software utilizing an intelligent system for controlling the training scenario. This approach, based on existing software, provides the capability for a high level of student performance monitoring utilized successfully in complex maintenance trainers. This paper also discusses issues relating to performance monitoring and organization of lesson plans to satisfy training requirements per student as identified by the system software. The system will control normal instructor functions including malfunctions, insertions and parameter modification, and will provide both visual and aural cues where necessary to aid in the clarification or augmentation of information presented to the trainee.

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An Alternative to ISD in the Development of Training Packages for the Lavi Fighter Aircraft

Year: 1985

Authors: Avi Kedem, Jonathan Smilansky

Abstract:

Israel Aircraft Industries is developing a new fighter aircraft, the LAVI, which is to be delivered together with Training Packages for both ground maintenance crews and pilots.

The ISD procedure was to be used as a guideline for the design of Training Packages. The procedure was found to be focused on task analysis without a clear delineation of how the design of Training Packages would follow from the task definition. The task analysis phase was found to be unmanageable since thousands of tasks could be defined for both the ground maintenance crews and the fighter pilots. Therefore, a new instructional development process, called the Integrated Job Performance Training (IJPT), method was created which is based on a shortened job analysis process and on the systematic planning of instructional activities that stem from the analysis. Under IJPT an instructional design consultant works with subject matter experts to produce Training Packages which are designed around the performance of essential job tasks.

This article includes a description of the specific stages involved in the design of these Training Packages, and how they differ from the stages involved in the ISD process. The presentation will also include a description of how this new Training Package development method produces instructional specifications which in turn become the foundation for the design of aircraft simulators and other training equipment.

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