Found 53 Papers
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Volume 1983
VHSIC for Training Systems

Year: 1983

Authors: David Glenn, Harold Freedman, James Gardner

Abstract: Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) is a new technology which promises to have a major impact on the training and training device community. As DoD and industry, in a joint effort, began to pursue this technology in 1980, it quickly became obvious that VHSIC, if successful, would result in more than just an evolutionary change in microelectronics - it had the potential to revolutionize the way in which we design, build, and use electronic devices. At this point in 1983 the performance predictions for the VHSIC technology are very close to being achieved. Not only will we have available to us significant increases in processing throughput, but the VHSIC chips will be smaller, lighter, require less power, and be more reliable than their predecessors. Cost savings are also predicted. As these advantages came close to reality in 1982, the Naval Training Equipment Center recognized a tremendous potential in the new chips to improve the future training devices and solve some problems being presented by the limitations of current technology. Therefore, a study contract was let to Honeywell (one of the six DoD VHSIC contractors) to investigate the impact of VHSIC on training and training devices. This paper will discuss the results of that study and Indicate the future direction in which the VHSIC technology will drive the training community.

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Increased Readiness Through Modularity

Year: 1983

Author: Frederic Snyder

Abstract: A current DOD thrust to develop and apply modularity approaches, tools and standards to training simulator development and acquisition is expected to yield benefits in reduced cost and acquisition time, as well as improved supportability. Top-down functional design of stand alone modules and well-defined interfaces will enhance simulator system designs. This paper examines the effects and benefits of modularity which are expected to increase readiness through earlier trainer availability dates and increased supportability. The derivative effect of modularity appears to provide new options that can operate to support increased defense readiness.

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The Navy's Shiphandling Research and Development Model

Year: 1983

Authors: Michael Hanley, D. Andrews

Abstract: The U.S. Navy has undertaken a shiphandling trainer design and development project for the purpose of upgrading existing training. Naval officers at all career levels have had fewer opportunities to acquire and practice shiphandling skills because of a considerable reduction in underway steaming time. A functional design has been generated that describes several design alternatives ranging from expensive, full mission, high fidelity, bridge simulators to smaller part-task devices that train principles and concepts. The Navy has determined that a relatively small, less expensive part-task trainer may meet most of the requirements for training basic and intermediate level shiphandling skills in the areas of shiphandling: alongside, in restricted waters, in open ocean, during mooring and anchoring, and for tactical operations. A model device has been developed that allows the Navy an opportunity to evaluate each of the proposed trainer subsystems under consideration for final engineering design. Major subsystems include a computer generated imagery (CGI) visual display, computer aided instruction (CAI), and a situation display that affords immediate and delayed performance feedback during and after training exercises. Future research using this model will provide important information concerning subsystem training effectiveness and the fidelity requirements for major areas of shiphandling training.

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Marine Corps Ground Simulator Training Needs in the 1985-1995 Time Frame

Year: 1983

Authors: Paul Patti, J. Marlin

Abstract:

This study was initiated to develop a document to be used for the planning and programming of simulation acquisition in support of Marine Corps training.

Generic training task requirements in the ground combat (C), combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) fields which can be enhanced through the use of simulation were identified. Tradeoff analyses were performed to develop prioritized lists of the tasks for which simulators should be developed and of recommended generic-type simulation devices.

The extent of the need for simulation was assessed by determining which of the training task requirements would be improved by the use of simulation, taking into account the technology state-of-the-art (SOA). Measures of quality of training used included: performance, time to train, training cost, personnel support, technological risk, integratability with other training, and special assets requirements.

This paper describes the methodology applied and the results obtained. Special emphasis is put on the criteria utilized and the planned future use of the results.

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Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display: A Cost Effective Approach to Full Visual Flight Simulation

Year: 1983

Author: Caroline Hanson

Abstract: Wide field of view, high resolution, detailed visual displays are crucial for the effective simulation of complex air-to-air and air-to-ground combat environments. Current dome and dodecahedron systems are far too costly and lack the combination of required capabilities. The Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) is currently developing a fiber optic helmet mounted display (FOHMD) system which has the potential for filling these demanding requirements. The breadboard FOHMD, built through a Canadian cost-sharing contract with CAE Electronics, displays a head-slaved high resolution area of interest surrounded by a low resolution background in color. The instantaneous field of view is comparable to the view available to a pilot when wearing an Air Force helmet. Four image generation channels and projectors are used to generate individual displays for each eye. The imagery is piped to the helmet via coherent fiber optic bundles. This system is a valuable research tool for studying many of the issues associated with helmet mounted displays such as image stability, resolution/brightness/field of view trade-offs, and visual perception/fatigue. A follow-on phase will refine the basic breadboard design by reducing the number and size of fiber optic bundles, developing improved helmet tracking and refined optics, and researching a multi-mission instructor/operator station. The fiber optic helmet mounted display shows outstanding potential and may ultimately be the key to high fidelity combat simulation training at the squadron level.

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Automatic Audit Information System for Software Development

Year: 1983

Author: Gary Brown

Abstract:

Management of a software development project is typically characterized by a lack of control and poor projections. Status reports are notoriously inaccurate; worse yet, the prerequisite software audits drain development resources from the design effort.

This paper describes an automated procedure for performing software audits and generating status reports. This procedure reduces the time required for both tasks significantly, and makes status reports available upon demand. Timely status reports furnish management with an early warning of problem areas so that project control can be exercised. For example, resources may be reallocated or additional resources employed where these problems are identified.

The Automatic Audit Information System for Software Development (AAIS) procedure has been implemented by AAI Corporation for the development of Device 20B5. It Is based upon the following concepts:

, A central software development library

, Software development milestones and criteria

, Functional hierarchies

, A development Scoreboard.

AAIS provides the 20B5 management with close project control by means of timely audits and concise status reporting.

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Training the Multiple-Aircraft Combat Environment

Year: 1983

Authors: Peter Cook, Caroline Hanson

Abstract: Aircrew training devices for the teaching of tactical combat maneuvering currently range from simple desk-top trainers to large weapon system trainers with limited visual systems. Still missing from the spectrum is the capability to practice full-mission multi-ship scenarios. At present such training can only be provided by major field exercises such as Red Flag, at great expense. A network of hostile-environment simulators could greatly increase the frequency of training, provide more realistic training, and keep pilots at a higher state of readiness than by using aircraft alone. The Air Force Human Resources Laboratory is exploring technology requirements for multiple aircraft simulation under Project 2743, the Combat Mission Trainer (CMT) program. The goal is to develop a full-mission combat simulator affordable at the wing level and capable of training all air-to-air and air-to-ground tasks.

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Simulation vs Stimulation in Electronic Warfare Trainers

Year: 1983

Author: Rollin Olson

Abstract: The design of an EW trainer involves a decision to simulate EW functions via computer software or to incorporate actual EW hardware within the trainer and stimulate it with required signals. This paper compares the requirements and relative advantages of software simulation vs. hardware stimulation in EW trainers. Aspects discussed include, cost of hardware and software, computer load, trainer fidelity to real-world conditions, documentation and data requirements, interaction among EW units, testing requirements, and trainer modification. Both approaches have particular advantages and problems in each of these areas. In conclusion, the choice of simulation or stimulation, or mixture of both, in a given trainer should be based on careful study of particular circumstances and requirements.

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A Four-Dimensional Thunderstorm Model for Flight Simulators

Year: 1983

Author: J. Klehr

Abstract: The recent airliner crash at New Orleans indicates that windshears due to thunderstorm downbursts challenge the most experienced and well-trained pilots. Much controversy exists as to the correct flight procedures for takeoff and landing under downburst windshear conditions. Flight simulators provide a safe environment to test procedures and train pilots for hazardous flight situations, but in the past, flight simulators have been unable to realistically duplicate the complex changes that occur temporally and spatially in real-world thunderstorms. A thunderstorm model based upon real-world data has now been developed for flight simulators, which provides twelve meteorological flight parameters which change in three-dimensional space and over a thirty-minute time span with color weather radar representations of the storm coordinated in time and space. The storm data set (representing a 20nm x 20nm x 3200-ft volume) is based upon multiple Doppler radar analyses of a 1978 Illinois thunderstorm. This data has been supplemented by a well-documented, fine resolution, downdraft model to provide realistic values in the hazardous regions of the sudden downdraft and its resulting turbulent gust front. By selecting different downdraft intensities and storm translational speed, the instructor may simulate a mild thunderstorm or one in which it would be impossible to fly. By positioning the storm's downdraft with respect to the runway in time and space, numerous different thunderstorm situations may be simulated. This thunderstorm model represents a breakthrough in the simulation of the storm environment and four-dimensional windshear effects for flight simulation.

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Merchant Ship Simulators

Year: 1983

Author: Max Carpenter

Abstract: As recently as 14 years ago, the various tasks involved with sailing merchant ships was reviewed and emphasis was placed on those considered appropriate for simulator training. Following this move, development was started by several organizations throughout the world on ship simulators. This paper presents the story of the work that led up to the completion of two large ship simulators. The size of these simulators plus motion to simulate heavy weather and a 360° horizontal field of view led to many interesting design-experiences. The problems, errors and successes that were encountered during the design, development and final construction of these devices should be of importance to future planners of marine simulators. The mathematical modeling of ship and systems is of importance. Decisions concerning the bridge instrumentation, performance measurement, and instructor control are based on training requirements. Of maximum importance is the visual input to the trainee. The fidelity of the simulator is judged by this presentation.

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