Found 69 Papers
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Volume 1982
The User's Role in Major Training System Acquisitions - As Perceived by the Developer

Year: 1982

Author: George Barcus

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to delineate the various responsibilities and interrelationships of the agencies involved in the acquisition of a major training system. As the title suggests, this paper will emphasize the role of the user as perceived by the materiel developer. Discussed within the paper will be these interrelationships as they exist with a major Army training system acquisition. The participants will be identified, the four phases of the acquisition process will be presented and a discussion of the role of the user in this process will be highlighted. Also covered will be the user's role in the development of Front-End Analysis (FEA) materiels and Task and Skills Analysis (TASA) documentation. In addition, a common vocabulary will be included to establish a basis of understanding and suggestions will be offered on problems which need heightened interest and tracking during the design, development and acquisition processes.

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Training Effectiveness Evaluation of Device A/F37A-T59

Year: 1982

Authors: James Kotora, William Siebert

Abstract: The 34th Tactical Airlift Training Group (TATG) at Little Rock AFB provides initial and tactical mission qualification training to C-130 crewmembers. One of the new features of the newly delivered simulators is the inclusion of Stationkeeping Equipment (SKE). A complex set of procedures for proper utilization of SKE during formation airdrops forms a large portion of the tactical mission qualification training course. The Training Programs Branch of the 34 TATG conducted a study to explore the application of the IFS to pilot and navigator training. The study was conducted using four test classes. After a standard academic course, classes of pilots and navigators were divided into test and control groups. The test groups were trained using a pre-designed simulator syllabus and their performance was measured in the aircraft. The control groups received their training only in the aircraft before completing the same performance measurement. The study results in terms of subjective and objective data showed that the IFS could reasonably support a training effectiveness ratio of approximately 0.5. The best training strategy appears to be an integration of IFS missions among flying missions and ground training rather than in one block. We recommend inclusion of the IFS in mission qualification training. We also recommend a re-evaluation of the mechanics of the proficiency advancement concept.

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Assessment of Simulator Visual Cueing Effectiveness by Psychophysical Techniques

Year: 1982

Authors: Joe De Maio, Rebecca Brooks

Abstract:

Growing emphasis on simulation of low altitude and air-to-air tactical scenarios has greatly increased the requirement for simulator visual systems capable of providing the pilot high-fidelity out-of-the-cockpit cues. Evaluation of visual system performance through simulator flying studies has been the primary measure of system quality. However, such studies can be costly and time consuming, and often they provide equivocal results. The present study investigated the use of psychophysical measurement methodology to provide a quick, low-cost evaluation of the altitude cues provided by five visual system displays.

Thirty Air Force pilots made estimates of the altitude above ground level (AGL) shown in slides of visual system displays varying in object density and object detail. Slides showed a 90Ā° field-of-view scene taken in the F-16 cockpit of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training. Eight altitudes (range 50-400 ft AGL) were presented for each visual scene condition. A random sequence of 40 slides (8 altitudes X 5 scenes) was presented three times. Power functions relating perceived to actual altitude were determined. Reliable differences were found between the displays which accorded well with differences found in a simulator flying study using the same display environments. Results are discussed in terms of display features and the measurement methodology.

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Tactical Ground Attack: On the Transfer of Training from Flight Simulator to Operational Red Flag Range Exercise

Year: 1982

Authors: Ronald Hughes, Rebecca Brooks, Douglas Graham, Ray Sheen, Tom Dickens

Abstract: A-10 pilots who rehearsed surface attack skills under high threat conditions in a flight simulator survived a significantly higher proportion of total RED FLAG missions than did pilots who did not receive the simulator training. These data support the notion that simulator training may have a significant influence upon aircrew survivability in high density ground threat environments.

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Needed: A State of the Art Integrated Logistic Support Acquisition Strategy

Year: 1982

Authors: Thomas Gwise, Maurice Winsor

Abstract: If logistics concepts are to maintain pace with the constantly changing hardware and software spheres, innovative state of the art logistics acquisition strategies must be conceived, defined, and implemented. Logistic acquisition concepts in the past have served well those devices for whose support they were designed. They cannot, however, meet the challenges occasioned by rising costs, the increasing demand for more reliable life cycle support, and ever more sophisticated training device systems. These challenges, as well as others, can best be met by developing a best value, performance based, functionally oriented logistics acquisition strategy. Such an evolution will focus attention on the product, not the process, of the logistics support acquisition effort. In turn, this shift in focus will require both Government and contractor to relinquish certain traditional roles and to assume some unfamiliar responsibilities. The authors recognize that such an approach will cause some degree of discomfort to both Government and contractor personnel. However, they submit that just as technology has. advanced from the vacuum tube to the integrated circuit, so must logistics advance from emphasis on the acquisition process to concentration on acquiring logistics products which will provide reliable life cycle support to training device systems.

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Simplified Scene Modeling Using Curved Surfaces and Texturing

Year: 1982

Authors: Geoffrey Gardner, Bob Gelman

Abstract: Constructing a scene data base for current computer image generation systems is a costly and time-consuming task. Thousands of edges must be defined by positioning the end points, or vertices, of each edge. In addition, edges bounding a common surface or face must be linked in a list. Data for each face must include information for a normal vector, and data for faces representing curved objects must include information for normal interpolation to simulate smooth shading across the object. This paper describes a more efficient scene model that is easier to construct and yet produces a more faithful representation of the real world. Scene geometry is modeled by quadric surfaces bounded by planes. Scene detail is modeled by a mathematical texturing function which modulates surface shading intensity and translucence. The paper describes how the new model simplifies modeling terrain, cultural features, moving targets, and special effects.

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Methodology to Assess In-Flight Performance for Air-to-Air Combat Training

Year: 1982

Author: Anthony Ciavarelli

Abstract: The Navy's Tactical Aircrew Combat Training System (TACTS) provides the instrumentation necessary to record in-flight performance of aircrews during air-to-air combat training. Data recorded on TACTS has been an important source of information for the development of objective flight performance criteria. This paper discusses research related to the development and application of in-flight measures of air combat performance. Procedures for systematic development of aircrew performance measures are identified and discussed. A generic methodology is proposed which will eventually lead to a prescriptive model for performance measurement system development. Some of the many applications of objective flight performance criteria include training progress evaluation, training methodology and effectiveness studies, and learning acquisition and transfer studies.

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NBC Training Requirements for the Integrated Battlefield

Year: 1982

Author: Gary Harvey

Abstract: The United States has paid little attention to nuclear warfare, biological warfare, and chemical warfare in the last decade. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union initiated an expansion of its chemical warfare program which has continued to grow at a greater rate than any aspect of their military force. Soviet policy closely follows the words of Marshal Zhukov who said in 1956, "Future wars will not be won with nuclear weapons and massed air power aloneā€¦biological and chemical weapons will be used to augment conventional and atomic warfare." The Soviets and their surrogates have used lethal agents in Afghanistan, Iaos and Kampuchea. It is clear the Soviets have the capability and willingness to fight in a biological and chemical environment. Soviet training programs integrate chemical weapons systems with conventional and nuclear operations. Since conducting training in one or any combination of these three special environments is not possible, United States preparedness to fight on a chemically, biologically, or nuclear contaminated battlefield requires the development of special training equipment, devices, and procedures which simulate these conditions as realistically as possible. To accomplish its mission, the US Army must train in peacetime as it will fight in war. This paper summarizes the needs of the US Army's requirements for training equipment and simulation to train in an NBC environment.

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TRIAD - An Approach to Embedded Simulation

Year: 1982

Authors: Peter Cross, Andy Olson

Abstract: Embedded simulation embraces the concept of using the real vehicle, artifically stimulated in a controlled manner, for the purpose of training operators in the use of the vehicle equipment. All the advantages of a controlled training environment, safety, malfunction training, etc. associated with dedicated simulation apply, together with greatly reduced capital costs and added operational flexibility. The paper describes TRIAD, a prototype simulation complex developed for helicopter pilot training that incorporates embedded simulation principles. TRIAD comprises three major components; a computer/linkage/peripheral complex, an out-the-window CIG visual display system and a Bell 206 Helicopter, each integrated together to demonstrate the feasability of embedded simulation for pilot training while maintaining certification on the aircraft configuration. The total system is described and includes the technical approach, an assessment of achieved performance, cost summary and suitability for training applications. A description of the aircraft modifications is presented detailing how they are achieved without compromising aircraft performance, reliability, or availability. The problems solved and lessons learned during this program are discussed together with an outline of future goals aimed at complete system simulation with minimum aircraft hardware adaptation.

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A Model for Determining Cost and Training Effectiveness Tradeoffs for Training Equipment

Year: 1982

Authors: Ruth Wienclaw, Frank Hines

Abstract:

This paper reports the status of Phase I of an ongoing project to develop a macro model describing the decisions involved in developing training equipment. The purpose of the model is to assist managers in making such decisions by providing information concerning the tradeoffs between cost and training effectiveness caused by different configurations and choices of equipment. After the development of a preliminary model, field research was conducted to determine the feasibility of testing such a model and to collect information to expand the preliminary version into a more pragmatic tool.

Results of the field work led to several conclusions. First, many of the types types of data needed to validate such a model are available, hence making such a project feasible. Second, an examination of the available data led to an expansion of the preliminary model to include training value of the various trainer characteristics. Third, much work is needed to develop longitudinal data bases of job performance before sound predictions can be made concerning the impact of trainer characteristics on technician performance after graduation.

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