Found 60 Papers
(click title to view abstract)

Volume 1980
Data Acquisition and Analysis System as a Training Device for Simulated Conventional Weapon Delivery

Year: 1980

Author: C. Hofman

Abstract: This paper does not have an abstract.

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User Acceptance of R&D in Navy Training: The Problem, Major Constraints, and an Initial Model of the Acceptance Process

Year: 1980

Authors: Gerald Stoffer, Arthur Blaiwes, Clyde Brictson

Abstract: The problem of operational user acceptance of naval training R&D studies and training devices is presented. A number of constraints on acceptance are described, including deficiencies in motivational conditions, deficiencies in social role assignments, deficiencies in official organizational policy and structure, inadequate defense R&D contracting methods, lack of integration of the user into the trainer system acquisition process, other-than-rational user responses to R&D studies in training, and deficiencies in training device design. A preliminary model of the acceptance process is presented. Finally, the degree of physical fidelity necessary for operational acceptance and training effectiveness is discussed. It is concluded that this paper and related recent work form a basis for the development of alternative approaches to solving the user acceptance problem.

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Training Techniques Using Computer Generated Imagery (CGI)

Year: 1980

Author: David Coblitz

Abstract:

Aircraft simulators have in the past been designed and used primarily as substitutes for aircraft. CGI provides the flexibility to enhance training in ways not normally possible in an aircraft. This research conceived and demonstrated training approaches to take advantage of this flexibility. Rather than duplicate the real world cockpit environment, this study considers other objectives attainable. This requires a change from thinking of a simulator as an airplane substitute to thinking of it as a training device that can complement ‘real world’ training from text through actual aircraft. Another change requiring consideration is the expected change in military use of simulators from teaching initial, simple flight skills and procedures, to teaching and maintaining complex combat skills involving interactions among several aircraft and ground systems.

Scene elements were incorporated into a computer generated visual presentation which did not represent "real world" objects, but which were there solely for instructional purposes.

Hopefully these techniques will be used to improve the effectiveness of actual aircraft hours spent in training rather than replace them.

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Instructional Design for Aircrew Judgment Training

Year: 1980

Author: F. Brecke

Abstract: Aircrew training design has made significant progress during recent years. However, significant gaps exist both in design methodology and existing programs with respect to systematic training of higher level cognitive skills. Training in decision-making and judgment is currently haphazard at best. After a brief review of recent literature, the paper presents a conceptual model of judgment performance. The theoretical model is an extrapolation from Jensen (1977) and unites the variables of cognitive complexity, time availability, uncertainty, and stress in one coherent model. The model is used to examine current aircrew training and to develop new training strategies for improving judgment performance.

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Software Quality Assurance Applied to Trainer System Development

Year: 1980

Author: Terry Tierney

Abstract: This paper will discuss the application of software quality assurance techniques to trainer software development, taking into consideration military standards and specifications and the unique characteristics of trainer development programs. Because military customers are paying greater attention to software development and software documentation, software quality assurance has become an increasingly important management objective. Although there are no quick recipes for adapting software quality assurance techniques and standards to trainer development, this objective can be met by analyzing the software specifications and standards along with the software quality assurance specifications and standards, by considering the unique aspects of trainer development, and by considering the aspects of applying and adapting software standards to trainer development. First, the various specifications and standards that apply to software development must be analyzed with particular attention paid to their interrelationships and to their relationships with deliverable data items. Then, this conceptual framework must be related to the software quality assurance standards and specifications. Differences and similarities between the standards and specifications written by different military customers will also be considered. Given this overall picture of the requirements for software development and quality assurance, the unique aspects of trainer development may be considered. Among these are shortened schedules, abbreviated data requirements and the application of weapon system standards to trainer development. Once the various requirements and the peculiar constraints of trainer development have been analyzed, the next step is to consider the meaningful application of software standards and quality assurance techniques to trainers. Among these considerations are cost effectiveness, who should accomplish the various quality assurance tasks, applicability of internal standards, whether tasks are best handled on a company or program basis, tailoring quality assurance functions to program needs, and the problem of assuring quality of software when there are no specific software data item requirements. In conclusion, this paper will present an approach to developing a software quality assurance program for trainer system development.

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The Simulator Data Test Instrumentation System A New Concept in Training Device Fidelity Measurement

Year: 1980

Author: William Curtice

Abstract: The Air Force recently completed in-house development of an instrumentation system designed to measure flight simulator cue correlation, aero model fidelity, and dynamic flight handling characteristics. The Simulator Data Test Instrumentation System (SDTIS) represents a significant advance in the state of the art for flight simulation instrumentation. The SDTIS hardware is configured as a field transportable "mini-system" using composite video recording techniques to concurrently record over 180 channels of analog or digital signal data, voice audio, and television camera acquired video information. It provides immediate, in-field, automated data reduction and analysis. It permits data acquired during simulator test to be directly compared to flight test data as a measure of simulation fidelity. The Air Force intends to use SDTIS techniques as an integral part of future simulator test and specification procedures. This paper will address the SDTIS capabilities, functions, and operation in conjunction with its application to future training equipment procurements.

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High Output - High Speed Video Images Projector Adapted to the Simulation Needs

Year: 1980

Author: Jean Huriet

Abstract: The main specifications, for the visual displays associated with military aircraft simulators are first recalled; they take into account the eye properties for spatial resolution, colour and speed of response. These specifications are examined from the point of view of simulator design and video-to-visual image converters. The features of a new projector developed by SODERN are then briefly described, and their adaptation to simulator needs are discussed.

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ASPT G-Seat/G-Suit Optimization

Year: 1980

Authors: Richard Engel, Dan McGuire

Abstract: Research was conducted to optimize, in terms of both hardware response and software driving philosophies, the effectiveness of pneumatically operated g-seat and g-suit flight simulation subsystems for high performance aircraft, such as the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training (ASPT) F-16. Results indicate that drive philosophies should be a dynamic function of g-range, ground or air operation, maneuver, and task. In some cases logical and satisfactory philosophies for T-37 training were improved by reversing their effect for high g maneuvers.

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The Semi-Automatic Instructional System

Year: 1980

Authors: William Reese, Robert Hansen

Abstract: This paper outlines Link division's approach to the general training requirements of the B-52 WST, and the specific requirements of the Instructional System. A review of the analysis and design approach is presented, as well as an overview of the resulting Instructional System, including several of the factors which influenced the design and development of the system. Several design goals were established for the Instructional System and, at this writing, the system has undergone several months of limited qualification testing by the Air Force test team, culminating in a production contract award to Link.

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Automatic Transformation of the DMA DDB for Real-Time Visual Simulation

Year: 1980

Author: Paul Hughett

Abstract: This visual data base transformation program automatically transforms the Defense Mapping Agency Digital Data Base (DMA DDB) into a data base for real-time simulation of the 8-52 electro-optical viewing system. The user reviews the source data and specifies edge budgets, error tolerances, and visual/infrared models for DMA planimetry feature classes. The DMA DDB is read and reblocked into standard geographical areas; data from different manuscripts, levels, and releases are merged into a composite source file. The user may edit the composite source. Then planimetry and terrain are independently modelled into visual/IR representations and progressively simplified (levelled) to meet the specified edge and error budgets at several levels of detail. The levelled planimetry and terrain are integrated into a combined scene model and reformatted for real-time use. Utility software facilitates production management and configuration control. Significant advances include automatic level of detail generation, terrain modelling, planimetry/terrain integration, and a 100-fold speedup in data base generation.

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